The authors examined the effects of end-to-side neurorrhaphy for reinnervation of the musculocutaneous nerve (Group A) which innervates the biceps muscle, compared to reinnervation of the median nerve which innervates multiple muscles in a rat model. Additionally, end-to-end neurorrhaphy to the musculocutaneous nerve using one-third of the median nerve (Group B) was investigated. End-to-end coaptation of the musculocutaneous nerve served as a control (Group C). In a grooming test, the biceps muscle function in Group A animals demonstrated a slower but nearly similar good recovery to Groups B and C. Biceps muscle contraction force investigated after 24 weeks demonstrated no statistically significant differences among all groups. In Groups A and B, no significant impairment of the donor median nerve function was found in a grasping test and the muscle contraction force of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and histologic evaluation of the musculocutaneous nerve showed multiple regenerated axons distal to the coaptation site. Retrograde double-labeling in Group A animals showed reinnervation of the musculocutaneous nerve by median nerve axons located at the coaptation site. These results validate that end-to-side neurorrhaphy to a nerve innervating a single muscle is more efficient than to a nerve innervating multiple muscles, as demonstrated in an earlier study. The reason for this phenomenon is most likely that all sprouting axons are directed toward one target rather than toward multiple targets, with the latter situation resulting in a smaller number of axons and a variable distribution of axons per target. Since donor nerve sprouting axons were observed at the coaptation site, a relevance of the selected site for end-to-side neurorrhaphy is suggested. Both end-to-side neurorrhaphy and end-to-end neurorrhaphy, using one-third of the median nerve, led to useful functional recovery in this rat model, if an agonistic donor nerve is employed.