In manufacturing industry there is a high demand for on line quality control to minimize the risk of incorrectly produced objects. Conventional contact measurement methods are usually slow and invasive, meaning that they cannot be used for soft materials and for complex shapes without influencing the controlled parts. In contrast, interferometry and digital holography in combination with computers become faster, more reliable and highly accurateas an alternative non-contact technique for industrial shape evaluation. For example in digital holography, access to the complex wave field and the possibility to numerically reconstruct holograms in different planes introduce a new degree of flexibility to optical metrology. With digital holography high resolution and precise three dimensional (3D) images of the manufactured parts can be generated. This technique can also be used to capture data in asingle exposure, which is important when doing measurements in a disturbed environment. The aim of this thesis is devoted to the theoretical and experimental development of shape and deformation measurements. To perform online process control of free-form manufactured objects, the measured shape is compared with the CAD-model to obtain deviations. To do this, a new technique to measure surface gradients and shape based onsingle-shot multiplexed dual-wavelength digital holography and image correlation of speckle displacements is demonstrated. Based on an analytical relation between phase gradients and speckle displacements it is shown that an object is retrieved uniquely to shape, position and deformation without the unwrapping problems that usually appear in dual-wavelength holography. The method is first demonstrated using continues-wave laser light from twotemperature controlled laser diodes operating at 640 nm. Then a specially designed dual core diode pumped fiber laser that produces pulsed light with wavelengths close to 1030 nm is used. In addition, a Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 532 nm is used for 3D deformation measurements. One significant problem when using the dual-wavelength single-shot approach is that phase ambiguities are built in to the system that needs to be corrected. An automatic calibration scheme is therefore required. The intrinsic flexibility of digital holography gives a possibility to compensate these aberrations and to remove errors, fully numerically without mechanical movements. In this thesis I present a calibration method which allows multiplexed singleshotonline shape evaluation in a disturbed environment. It is shown that phase maps and speckle displacements can be recovered free of chromatic aberrations. This is the first time that a multiplexed single-shot dual-wavelength calibration is reported by defining a criteria tomake an automatic procedure. Further, Digital Speckle Photography (DSP) is used for the full field measurement of 3D deformations. In order to do 3D deformation measurement, usually multi-cameras and intricate set-up are required. In this thesis I demonstrate the use of only one single camera torecord four sets of speckle patterns recorded by illuminating the object from four different directions. In this manner, meanwhile 3D speckle displacement is calculated and used for the measurement of the 3D deformations, wrapping problems are also avoided. Further, the same scale of speckle images of the surface for all four images is guaranteed. Furthermore, a need for calibration of the 3D deformation measurement that occurs in the multi-camera methods,is removed. By the results of the presented work, it is experimentally verified that the multiplexed singleshot dual wavelength digital holography and numerically generated speckle images can be used together with digital speckle correlation to retrieve and evaluate the object shape. Usingmultidirectional illumination, the 3D deformation measurements can also be obtained. The proposed method is robust to large phase gradients and large movements within the intensity patterns. The advantage of the approach is that, using speckle displacements, shape and deformation measurements can be performed even though the synthetic wavelength is out of the dynamic range of the object deformation and/or height variation.
TEKNIK OCH TEKNOLOGIER -- Elektroteknik och elektronik -- Signalbehandling (hsv//swe)
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY -- Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering -- Signal Processing (hsv//eng)
TEKNIK OCH TEKNOLOGIER -- Maskinteknik -- Teknisk mekanik (hsv//swe)
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY -- Mechanical Engineering -- Applied Mechanics (hsv//eng)