Purpose: Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major problem in chemotherapy. In order to identify drugs with selective cytotoxic activity in drug-resistant cancer cells, the annotated compound library LOPAC(1280), containing compounds from 56 pharmacological classes, was screened in the myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 and its doxorubicin-resistant subline 8226/Dox40. Methods: Cell survival was measured by the Fluorometric Microculture Cytotoxicity Assay. Results: Selective cytotoxic activity in 8226/Dox40 was obtained for 33 compounds, with the most pronounced difference observed for the glucocorticoids. A microarray analysis of the cells showed a difference in mRNA-expression for the glucocorticoid receptor suggesting potential mechanisms for the difference in glucocorticoid sensitivity. In the presence of the glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist RU486, the sensitivity to the glucocorticoids was reduced and a similar effect level in RPMI 8226 and 8226/Dox40 was achieved. Conclusion: In conclusion, screening of mechanistically annotated compounds on drug-resistant cancer cells can identify compounds with selective activity and provide a basis for the development of novel treatments of drug-resistant malignancies.