Objective: Life-long glucocorticoid therapy in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or the disease per se may result in increased cardiovascular risk. We therefore investigated cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles in adult CAH males. Subjects and Methods: We compared CAH males (n=30), 19-67 years old, with age- and sex-matched controls (n=32). Subgroups of different ages (<30 years or older) and CYP21A2 genotypes (null, I2splice and I172N as the mildest mutation) were studied. Anthropometry, fat and lean mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lipids, liver function tests, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), urine albumin, adrenal hormones, and 24h ambulatory blood pressure measurements were studied. Results: CAH males were shorter. Waist/hip ratio and fat mass were higher in older patients and the I172N group. Heart rate was faster in older patients, the I2splice, and I172N groups. Insulin levels were increased during OGTT in all patients and in the I172N group. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was increased in older patients and in the I172N group. Testosterone was lower in older patients. Homocysteine was lower in younger patients which may be cardioprotective. The cardiovascular risk seemed higher with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate compared to prednisolone. Urinary epinephrine was lower in all groups of patients except in I172N. Conclusions: Indications of increased risk were found in CAH males ≥30 years old and in the I172N group. In contrast, younger CAH males did not differ from age-matched controls. This is likely to reflect a better management in recent years.
MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP -- Klinisk medicin (hsv//swe)
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES -- Clinical Medicine (hsv//eng)