Schizophrenia is a diagnosis with a set of symptoms of aberrant psychological phenomena. Here, we discuss that there may be an imbalance of proteostasis of neurons in the brain leading to increase in membrane shedding and buildup of microparticles (MPs) appearing in the cerebrospinal fluid. The number of MPs can be determined and their phenotypes verified by size and membrane expression with flow cytometry. This is the first report of specified MPs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in schizophrenia. Two 56-year-old Swedish-born female monozygotic twins of Caucasian ethnicity with onset of schizophrenia more than 30 years ago were studied. Three fractions of fresh CSF were examined for microparticles by flow cytometry analysis, which measure the specific binding of antibodies to CD42a (platelet-MP; 33 GPIX), CD144 (endothelial-MP; Ve-cadherin), CD45 (leukocyte-MP; pan-leukocyte antigen) and of phosphatidylserine to lactadherin. The patients with schizophrenia displayed more phosphatidylserine-positive MPs in CSF compared with healthy control subjects. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) structures in CSF studied over a 3-year period in twins with schizophrenia were of similar appearance at both time points. The increased number of MPs in fresh CSF may be a sign of enhanced membrane shedding in the central nervous system. Such MPs can be investigated for both human and non-human DNA, RNA and microRNA that may activate different immune signaling systems in patients with schizophrenia. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP -- Klinisk medicin -- Psykiatri (hsv//swe)
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES -- Clinical Medicine -- Psychiatry (hsv//eng)