Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453.6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377.6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160.5 mg/d; women: 124.8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213.5 mg/d; women: 178.6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26.6 mg/d in men; women: 20.7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29.3 mg/d; women: 25.3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455.2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134.6 mg/d; women: 101.0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.
MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP -- Hälsovetenskaper -- Näringslära (hsv//swe)
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES -- Health Sciences -- Nutrition and Dietetics (hsv//eng)
Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Europe
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Europe