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Sökning: onr:"swepub:oai:lup.lub.lu.se:98ddafdf-93e9-4740-bee2-dd13eff1ac3d" > An 'alpha-beta' of ...

An 'alpha-beta' of pancreatic islet microribonucleotides

Dalgaard, Louise Torp, (författare)
Roskilde University
Eliasson, Lena, (författare)
Forskargrupper vid Lunds universitet, Lund University Research Groups, -lup-obsolete, LUDC (Lund University Diabetes Centre)-lup-obsolete, Lunds universitet, Lund University
Lunds universitet EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden. (creator_code:org_t)
2017
Engelska.
Ingår i: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. - Elsevier. - 1357-2725. ; 88, s. 208-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
Abstract Ämnesord
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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are cellular, short, non-coding ribonucleotides acting as endogenous posttranscriptional repressors following incorporation in the RNA-induced silencing complex. Despite being chemically and mechanistically very similar, miRNAs exert a multitude of different cellular effects by acting on mRNA species, whose gene-products partake in a wide array of processes.Here, the aim was to review the knowledge of miRNA expression and action in the islet of Langerhans. We have focused on: 1) physiological consequences of islet or beta cell specific inhibition of miRNA processing, 2) mechanisms regulating processing of miRNAs in islet cells, 3) presence and function of miRNAs in alpha versus beta cells - the two main cell types of islets, and 4) miRNA mediators of beta cell decompensation.It is clear that miRNAs regulate pancreatic islet development, maturation, and function in vivo. Moreover, processing of miRNAs appears to be altered by obesity, diabetes, and aging. A number of miRNAs (such as miR-7, miR-21, miR-29, miR-34a, miR-212/miR-132, miR-184, miR-200 and miR-375) are involved in mediating beta cell dysfunction and/or compensation induced by hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, cytotoxic cytokines, and in rodent models of fetal metabolic programming prediabetes and overt diabetes. Studies of human type 2 diabetic islets underline that these miRNA families could have important roles also in human type 2 diabetes.Furthermore, there is a genuine gap of knowledge regarding miRNA expression and function in pancreatic alpha cells. Progress in this area would be enhanced by improved in vitro alpha cell models and better tools for islet cell sorting.

Ämnesord

MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP  -- Medicinska grundvetenskaper -- Cell- och molekylärbiologi (hsv//swe)
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES  -- Basic Medicine -- Cell and Molecular Biology (hsv//eng)
MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP  -- Klinisk medicin -- Endokrinologi och diabetes (hsv//swe)
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES  -- Clinical Medicine -- Endocrinology and Diabetes (hsv//eng)

Nyckelord

Alpha cell
Beta cell
Diabetes
Gene-expression
Glucagon secretion
Insulin secretion
Islet of langerhans
MicroRNA
Non-coding RNAs
Pancreas
Stem cell
Translational repression

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Eliasson, Lena
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