Background Androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) stimulate production of prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is a clinical marker of prostate cancer (PCa). Since genetic variants in the AR may have a significant impact on the risk of being diagnosed with PCa, the aim was to investigate if AR-variants were associated with the risk of having PSA above clinically used cut-off thresholds of 3 or 4 ng/mL in men without PCa. Methods Men without PCa history (n=1744) were selected from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) cohort of 40-80 year old men from 8 different European centers. Using linear and logistic regression models, with age and center as covariates, we investigated whether AR-variants (CAG repeat-length and/or SNP genotype) were associated with having serum PSA concentrations above 3 or 4 ng/mL, which often are set as cut-off concentrations for further investigation of PCa. Results Carriers of the SNP rs1204038 A-allele (16% of the men) were more likely to have PSA>3 and 4 ng/mL (OR; 95%CI 1.65; 1.13-2.40 and 1.87; 1.18-2.96, respectively) than G-allele carriers. They also had shorter CAG-repeats (median 20 vs. 23, p<0.0005), but CAG repeat length per se did not affect the PSA concentrations. Conclusion The A-allele of the SNP rs1204038 gives a 65% higher risk of having PSA above 3 ng/mL than the G-allele in men without PCa, and thereby an increased risk of being referred for further examination on suspicion of PCa. Impact Serum PSA as a clinical marker could be improved by adjustment for AR-genotype.
MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP -- Klinisk medicin -- Cancer och onkologi (hsv//swe)
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES -- Clinical Medicine -- Cancer and Oncology (hsv//eng)