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1.
  • Norden, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Learning in global settings: Developing transitions for meaning-making
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Research in Comparative and International Education. - SAGE Publications. - 1745-4999. ; 7:4, s. 514-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global teaching and learning for sustainable development reaches from the classroom to the world outside, and is therefore a particularly interesting setting for practising transition skills. The article suggests a number of features perceived as crucial in developing young people's capability to act in a changing world and under circumstances that are difficult to predict. The suggestions are based on an empirical study of the Lund Calling project, which aimed at implementing a web-based international programme for teaching preventive environmental strategies in Swedish secondary schools. The article first presents some of the conditions in Sweden that particularly impact on young people's transition to adulthood. Related research in sustainability education is also briefly outlined. Knowledge capability theory is used to discuss results from the empirical study of the Lund Calling project, where interviews were conducted with secondary school students, teachers and headmasters. Based on these interviews, features that appear to be particularly relevant as transition skills in global learning for sustainable development include transdisciplinary action, democratic collaborative action, as well as self-directed and independent initiative. The article concludes that young people today cannot, as in earlier periods of history, base their actions entirely on the traditions of the family or community. Instead, they also need to learn to form their own communities, capable of acting at both local and global levels. Education here plays an important role in developing the necessary transition skills that enable young people to be prepared for a rapidly changing and uncertain world.
2.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Learning and teaching sustainable development in global-local contexts
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge of teaching and learning sustainable development in global–local contexts. The research field is global learning for sustainable development (GLSD). Phenomenographic approach and contextual analysis were used as methods of analysis, and data was collected by Semi-structured interviews at secondary and upper secondary schools in Sweden. In Study I, a strategic and systematic literature review was conducted of recent trends and critique to the dominating rhetoric on policy level concerning global education and global learning on sustainability issues. The complexity represented in GLSD is of global interest to face current challenges. The global–local context and the process for global learning were characterised by the learner’s perspective and self-efficacy. The variation of ways in which contextual features were revealed, affected how participants experienced their own learning global learning space. In Study II, empirical investigations were conducted of students’, teachers’, and head teachers’ conceptions of implementation of GLSD. Results indicate that critical knowledge capabilities were needed to act towards sustainability globally. Critical knowledge capabilities developed in the processes were to take command and collaborate as a team. Capabilities that were identified as necessary but which had not been sufficiently developed were to be prepared, act in a transdisciplinary manner and lead for holistic understanding in the learning process. Critical knowledge capabilities to handle complex knowledge were characterised by volition, self-directed learning, and knowledge formation. In Study III, a re-analysis was conducted of the data from Study II. The results shed light on pertinent transition skills in GLSD: (I) transdisciplinary action via knowledge formation in actual practices, (II) democratic collaborative action via processes of understanding, respectively (III) self-directed learning and independent initiative. These transition skills, enabling young people to be prepared for unpredictable changes, were perceived as key features in developing young people’s capability in an uncertain world. They developed worldview understanding, and advanced transformation competencies including critical reflections upon questions of current normativity. In Study IV, collaborative and transdisciplinary teaching with a global–local perspective was investigated in a study with teachers committed to global learning and sustainable development at an upper secondary school. Two main transdisciplinary teaching approaches of GLSD were distinguished: Contributing: Assist and Take Part respectively Ownership: Possess and Reconceptualise. The contributing approach was divided into the sub-categories: (I) Disheartened, (II) Supportive, and (III) Complementing teaching approaches; while the ownership approach comprised (IV) Decisive, and (V) Multi-dimensional teaching approaches. Various dimensions of the results appeared to be relevant for sustainability teaching and learning in global–local contexts, when connections between the studies were analysed in relation to the context and the overarching aims of the thesis. Through transdisciplinary teaching deep approaches to learning can be developed and Global teaching for sustainable development (GTSD) could be advanced. Individual and collaborative learning characterised by selfdetermination, responsibility, and social readiness leading to action emerged as key aspects At a global–local level, there is a growing need to develop competencies and capabilities for transitions towards sustainability. Conflicts and climate change are drastically increasing the number of displaced people who need transnational education on proactive preventive strategies, as well as develop to critical knowledge capabilities that can be useful across numerous contexts and in the face of changing circumstances. Increasingly, also young people need to manage their own learning processes in self-directed learning, regardless of where they are physically or may move in their lifetimes. As established social structures struggle to address global challenges, people across the planet need to be able to organise themselves and to take initiatives.
3.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Global Knowledge Formation in the Extended Classroom : Transdisciplinary Network for Global Learning Towards Sustainability
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ECER 2015 : Online Programme. - EERA.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Young Masters Program (YMP) online about sustainable development and preventive environmental management strategies has reached out to more than 10 000 students in 120 countries since 1999, when the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) atLundUniversitystarted the education for young students between 14 and 18 years (Nordén, 2005a; Nordén, 2005b). Youth from different countries and cultures are working with a common content interactively and problem-oriented in an extended classroom (Hansson and Nordén, 2005). The YMP course is free of charge and supervised by the IIIEE. The teenagers work in interactions across the globe to learn about sustainable development through exploring a learning environment with new ICT-mediated ways of communication including global interaction with ideas and descriptions, and a transdisciplinary approach focusing on social, economic and ecological dimensions of the students’ daily lives (Laurillard, 2002; Nordén, 2006). Focus is in particular on the ways in which the meeting between the course content, the intercultural discussions and the students’ own life-experiences constitute a context for knowledge formation, with emphasis on the extended classroom that is supported by the course. The context of learning is particularly interesting in the diverse situations that distance learners are in and the diversity that the course itself incorporates. The purpose of this research, using a phenomenographic approach (Marton, 1981; Marton & Booth, 1997), is to analyze and describe the ways in which these students have experienced their learning process in the field of sustainable development within the YMP. The data are collected from the students’ assignments and follow-up discussions where they reflect on the assignments in the course’s online meeting place. There are also data collected from the questionnaire about the students’ learning process. This material from the first part of the YMP online autumn of 2005 was analyzed (Marton and Booth, 1997; Booth and Hultén, 2003). Different conceptions and differentmeanings of what are apparently similar concepts have to become the object of reflection, and this gives rise to knowledge formation (Pierce, 1934; Bateson, 1972; Hansson, 2000; Hansson, 2004). In the YMP its value in linking distant partners internationally for information sharing, awareness raising and knowledge formation activities is shown. The varying meetings encourage the youth to reflect more on attitudes, to realize how their own actions and the actions of other people affect the environment. In front of all the students are young people meeting one another as young people do, living in a single world of youth with environmental, social and economic challenges; besides that they are meeting in the course, around the common issues concerning sustainable development as it is problemized in the course; and finally they are meeting as representatives of different cultures with different assumptions and values (Hansson & Nordén, 2005). Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The purpose of our research is to analyze and describe the ways in which these students have experienced their learning process in the field of sustainable development within the ICT-mediated course YMP (Young Masters Program). We are focusing in particular on the ways in which the meeting between the course content, the intercultural discussions and the students´ own life-experiences constitute a context for knowledge formation, with emphasis on the extended room that is supported by the course. The context of learning is particularly interesting in the diverse situations that distance learners are in and the diversity that the course itself incorporates. The aim of the analysis was to find qualitative differences in the experiences of knowledge formation. The study has been influenced by a phenomenographic approach to the research (Marton, 1981, Marton & Booth, 1997; Marton, Hounsell & Entwistle, 1997; Booth & Hultén, 2003), where the goal is to capture the ways in which learning is experienced by the students, taking a second-order perspective on the object of study. Twelve study groups form a team hosted in a virtual course room. Each of the virtual course rooms have a representation of different countries and different continents, e.g. in our study Argentina, Armenia, Belarus, China, Colombia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, South Africa and Sweden. The data are collected from the students’ assignments and follow-up discussions where they reflect on the assignments in the course’s online meeting place. The three modules What are the Environmental Challenges?, What are the Social Challenges? and What are the Economic Challenges? were analyzed. Data was also collected and analyzed from the questionnaire on the students’ learning process. All data are from Part 1 of the YMP online taking place during the autumn 2005. The YMP course online consists of two parts. Part 1 compromises eight modules of studies about sustainability. The students learn about biodiversity, gaining an understanding of the complexity of ecosystems and their natural balance, as well as social, economic and environmental challenges. They begin looking at their world from the perspective of sustainable development. By learning about Agenda 21, they join international efforts in planning improvements and will be able to take a stand on sustainability issues. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings The young people take part in the extended classroom and learn by reading their assignments´ content in a critical way and by being obvious of different interpretations. This material in the extended classroom is a great asset to students. The students become more aware of different aspects and ways of seeing problems. They are conscious – as well – of people having different interpretations of the same phenomenon. Experts are also very important persons in the process of forming knowledge. The students stand for two domains of knowledge – ”science-based” knowledge as well as ”reality-based” knowledge. Being in two domains could be seen as beneficial for their understanding of the phenomenon which are important for sustainable development. But, the ”reality-based” knowledge could of course be questioned – is it a contribution? This knowledge may not be believable? The opinion hold by the students, when they are reflecting upon their shaped process for formation and transformation of knowledge, is that their “reality-based” knowledge is believable. Through new combinations different forms of knowledge is formed and become parts of new contexts of meaning. Thanks to the critical view – included in the collaboration, negotiations and exchange in the YMP students´ discussions – a transforming learning process contributes to a solid foundation of a “reality-based” knowledge. The processes of knowledge transformation for sustainable development occur in the diverse educational settings of the YMP. The extended room in the YMP online shows its value in linking distant partners internationally for information sharing, awareness raising and activities for knowledge formation. The varying meetings engage the youth, in different processes of knowledge appropriation in relation to their social and cultural identities and interests. They start reflecting more on their attitudes, realizing how their own actions and the actions of other people affect the environment References Ally, M. (2004). Foundations of educational theory for online learning. In: Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University. Retrieved September 10, 2006, from http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/ch1.html Bateson, G. (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind. St Albans: Paladin Fromore Booth, S. & Hultén, M. (2003). Opening dimensions of variation: An empirical study of learning. Instructional Science 31:65 -86. Gough, N. (1987). Learning with environments: Towards an ecological paradigm for education. In Robottom, I. (ed) Environmental Education: Practice and possibility. Deakin: Deakin University Hansson, B. (2000). Förutsättningar för gymnasielevers kunskapsbildning och för undervisning inom miljöområdet. Dissertation. Lund: Department of Education, University of Lund Hansson, B. (2004). Formation of environmental knowledge. In Wickenberg, P. et al (eds)(2004) Learning to change our world. Lund: Studentlitteratur Hansson, B. & Nordén, B. (2005). Building an extended community for sustainable development. Paper at 3rd World Environmental Educator Congress, Turin, Italy, October 2-6, 2005 Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching : a framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: Routledge Marton , F.(1981). Phenomenography - describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science 10: 177-200. Marton, F., Hounsell, D. & Entwistle, N. (1997) The Experience of Learning (2nd edn.). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. Marton, F. & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awareness. Mahwah, NJ: LEA Moore, J. (2005). Barriers and pathways to creating sustainability education programs: policy, rhetoric and reality. Environmental Education Research. Vol 11, No 5, 537-555. Nordén, B. (2005a). Young Masters Program - Learning in the ICT-extended University. Paper at Committing Universities to Sustainable Development Conference on the International Launch in Higher Education, Graz, Austria, April 20-23, 2005 Nordén, B. (2006). Online learning: Analysis of experiences of youth education for Sustainable Development. Paper at International Conference on Distance Education 2006, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, March 27–29, 2006 Nordén, B. & Hansson, B. (2006a). Meeting over cultural boundaries: networked learning for sustainable development. Paper at Networked learning 2006 – Fifth International Conference, Lancaster University, UK, April 10–12, 2006 Peirce, C. S. (1934). Collected Papers V of Charles Sanders Peirce . Vol 5 Pragmatism and Pragmaticism, edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss. Cambridge: Harward University Press Wals, A.E.J. & Jickling, B. (2002). “Sustainability” in higher education: from doublethink and newspeak to critical thinking and meaningful learning. Higher Education Policy 15 (2002) 121 - 131.
4.
  • Nordén, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Nyanlända studenters behov av utbildning : möjligheter och hinder
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fram till nu har högre utbildning för nyanlända främst betraktats utifrån möjligheter att komplettera tidigare utbildningar och snabbt få invandrade akademiker i arbete i Sverige. Men frågorna om hur man kan få in nyanlända i högre utbildning är även centrala utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. För att möta globala utmaningar kommer det att behövas kraftfulla dialogutrymmen mellan den globala norden och södern. Ur detta perspektiv blir de nyanlända oerhört värdefulla som framtida brobyggare i det globala arbetet för övergångar mot hållbarhet. En rad initiativ har påbörjats i Europa för att undersöka vilka åtgärder som behövs för att bättre möta utbildningsbehovet på högskolenivå bland nytillkomna flyktingar. Förslag omfattar bland annat särskilda stipendier, ändringar i formuleringen av inträdeskrav, eller upprättandet av ett kursutbud på engelska. I Sverige avser flera initiativ att påskynda inträdet i arbetslivet för de nyanlända. Validering i högre utbildning är en fråga som kräver särskild uppmärksamhet, liksom frågan om hur kvalificerade flyktingar kan få sin yrkeskompetens erkänd och anpassad till svenska krav. Bedömning av meriter och erkännandet av tidigare studier är också en nyckelfråga för antagning av studenter baserat på diplom erhållna i deras ursprungsland. Projektet Nyanlända studenter undersöker förutsättningarna vid Malmö Högskola både avseende antagningen och avseende möjligheterna att erbjuda skräddarsydda kurser, anpassade till behoven hos flyktingar i regionen. Såväl pedagogiska som administrativa konsekvenser av tänkbara åtgärder och insatser kommer att undersökas.
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5.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Deepening Approaches to Teaching, Learning and Curriculum in Environmental and Sustainability Education: Transdisciplinary Teaching for Global Learning of Sustainable Development in a Whole School Project.
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Deepening Approaches To Teaching, Learning and Curriculum In Environmental And Sustainability Education Chair: Alan Reid (Monash University) Symposium: 3 Papers in Symposium - 3 National Perspectives. National perspective: Sweden This paper reports on a study of transdisciplinary teaching of education for sustainable development (ESD) with a global dimension at an upper secondary school in Sweden. The paper examines the argument that in these contexts, content and teaching forms are not established in advance, making it possible for students to develop critical knowledge capability. Knowledge capability goes beyond simply holding a competence for acting in a defined and foreseeable situation that can be practiced in advance. Instead, knowledge capabilities allow students to take adequate decisions in the future, as new situations occur and demand action-taking. A total of 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 teachers and analysed using phenomenographic and contextual analysis (Åkerlind, 2005). Two main approaches to transdisciplinary teaching were identified: one where they contributed but struggled with transdisciplinarity, and the other where teachers displayed ownership and were able to reconceptualise the project as a whole. Overall, teachers worked in the project with deep-level processing for learning ESD in an integrated manner in a transdisciplinary framework. However, they experienced tensions between their resources and capabilities, and the challenges they faced in the project. Working with ESD is shown to be a highly challenging and complex task for teachers, in devising learning activities and support structures for students that involve these various dimensions. Despite their aspirations to achieve ESD learning goals expressed in the national curriculum, teacher teams frequently experience that they do not have full capability to cover a complex knowledge field (Öhman & Öhman, 2012). Teachers are challenged to work with their own professional development, exchanging experiences and knowledge simultaneously. This also involves coping with deep questions of their inner (re)orientation, and developing extended external teaching forms corresponding to transdisciplinary learning processes (Sund & Wickman, 2008). The paper concludes by arguing that by enhancing the ability to deal with global processes, involving critical thinking, skills and values, ESD inevitably attempts to foster students becoming responsible citizens (Scheunpflug & Asbrant, 2006; Anderberg, Nordén, & Hansson 2009). This is facilitated by approaches that, from the outset, integrate global and transdisciplinary dimensions, and thereby address the challenge of teaching about complexities (Sund 2015), with considerations of local situations, and diverse values or cultures. Importantly, working with the global dimension allows students to better understand conflicts of interest underlying different suggestions for dealing with sustainability issues and making decisions in the future (Biesta 2009; Howie & Bagnall, 2012; Gough 2012). Bibliography: Åkerlind, G. (2005). Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods. Higher Education Research and Development, 24: 321-334. Anderberg, E., B. Nordén, & B. Hansson. (2009). Global Learning for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: Recent Trends and Critique. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 10(4): 368-378. Biesta, G. (2009). Good Education in an Age of Measurement: On the Need to Reconnect with the Question of Purpose in Education. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability 21(1): 33-46. Gough. N. (2012). Thinking Globally in Environmental Education. In (Eds) R. Stevenson et al. International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education. Routledge. pp. 33-44. Howie, P. & R. Bagnall. (2012). A Critique of the Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning Model. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(4): 389-400. Öhman. M. & J. Öhman. (2012). Harmony or Conflict? A Case Study of Meaning Content in ESD. NORDINA 8(1): 59-71. Scheunpflug, A. & B. Asbrand. (2006). Global Education and ESD. Environmental Education Research, 12(1): 33-46. Sund. P. (2015). Experienced ESD-School Teachers’ Teaching – An Issue of Complexity. Environmental Education Research, 21(1): 24-44. Sund, P. & P-O. Wickman. (2008). Teachers’ Objects of Responsibility: Something to Care about in ESD? Environmental Education Research, 14(2): 145-163.
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6.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Contemporary Sustainability Literacy Counting on Critical Knowledge Capability.
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • "This paper reports on a study of transdisciplinary teaching of education for sustainable development (ESD) with a global dimension at an upper secondary school in Sweden. The paper examines the argument that in these contexts, content and teaching forms are not established in advance, making it possible for students to develop critical knowledge capability. Knowledge capability goes beyond simply holding a competence for acting in a defined and foreseeable situation that can be practiced in advance. Instead, knowledge capabilities allow students to take adequate decisions in the future, as new situations occur and demand action-taking. A total of 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 teachers and analysed using phenomenographic and contextual analysis (Åkerlind, 2005). Two main approaches to transdisciplinary teaching were identified: one where they contributed but struggled with transdisciplinarity, and the other where teachers displayed ownership and were able to reconceptualise the project as a whole. Overall, teachers worked in the project with deep-level processing for learning ESD in an integrated manner in a transdisciplinary framework. However, they experienced tensions between their resources and capabilities, and the challenges they faced in the project. Working with ESD is shown to be a highly challenging and complex task for teachers, in devising learning activities and support structures for students that involve these various dimensions. Despite their aspirations to achieve ESD learning goals expressed in the national curriculum, teacher teams frequently experience that they do not have full capability to cover a complex knowledge field (Öhman & Öhman, 2012). Teachers are challenged to work with their own professional development, exchanging experiences and knowledge simultaneously. This also involves coping with deep questions of their inner (re)orientation, and developing extended external teaching forms corresponding to transdisciplinary learning processes (Sund & Wickman, 2008). The paper concludes by arguing that by enhancing the ability to deal with global processes, involving critical thinking, skills and values, ESD inevitably attempts to foster students becoming responsible citizens (Scheunpflug & Asbrant, 2006; Anderberg, Nordén, & Hansson 2009). This is facilitated by approaches that, from the outset, integrate global and transdisciplinary dimensions, and thereby address the challenge of teaching about complexities (Sund 2015), with considerations of local situations, and diverse values or cultures. Importantly, working with the global dimension allows students to better understand conflicts of interest underlying different suggestions for dealing with sustainability issues and making decisions in the future (Biesta 2009; Howie & Bagnall, 2012; Gough 2012).”
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7.
  • Nordén, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Learning in global settings for sustainable development: local challenges.
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The pilot project Lund Calling is a step for initiating the process of learning about sustainability issues in global–local settings through the implementation of the Young Masters Programme (YMP). Lund Calling was originally started by the Municipality of Lund to promote education for sustainable development (ESD), giving pupils from grade 8 up to the completion of upper secondary level the opportunity to study the YMP within the framework of their regular studies. This was to be accomplished by the construction of a local course, considered to be “a raw model” for all schools in Lund. A number of schools were specifically selected by the Department of Education in the Municipality of Lund to participate in the pilot project Lund Calling. Alongside with the educational pilot project, a research project was also to be conducted. The aim of the research project was to analyse and describe pupils’ and teachers’ experiences of the pilot project. Later, interviews with headmasters were also included. The purpose of this empirical investigation is, in other words, not to evaluate or assess the effectiveness of the initial attempts to implement the YMP at schools in the Municipality of Lund, but rather to contribute to the further development of the implementation processes, by capturing some of the experiences, voices and engagement of the many stakeholders and participants. Preliminary findings were presented during a seminar (2008) at the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University, which was addressed to participants from schools in Lund. Findings were also presented at the international conference initiated by the Regional Centre of Expertise on education for sustainable development in Skåne (RCE-Skåne): EU as Global Actor – The pilot project Lund Calling 2009. European Conference on Education for Sustainable Development: Community based learning – Bringing the World into the classroom (Nordén & Anderberg, 2009). For more information, visit the Lund Calling web site at: http://www.lucsus.lu.se/lundcalling/ The Young Masters Programme has developed into an internationally acclaimed and well-tested model, for distance education with multicultural and interactive participation, dealing with sustainability issues. The YMP is offered by the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University. For more information, visit the IIIEE web site at: http://www.iiiee.lu.se/site.nsf/AllDocuments/3FF88126AF2B70EDC1256F6B00489555 2 In this first section of the report, we outline the background of the study. In the second section, the design of the empirical investigation is described, while in the last section, the results of the empirical investigation will be discussed. Some conclusions are presented, and further steps in the implementation process are suggested.
8.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Transdisciplinary Teaching Approaches of Global Learning for Sustainable Development
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • From a pedagogical perspective with a concern of teaching and learning, it is necessary to focus on not only the learner and the content, but also the teachers experiences - at the same time, while promoting transdisciplinary knowledge formation. Marton and Tsui are referring capabilities to objects of learning. The teacher work towards the object of learning includes not only what the students trying to learn, but also on the way of how the students mastering that. Aware or not about it, the understanding of the teachers heading for the intended object of learning , is crucial. Due to the complexity of SD issues, it is necessary to bring in an open-minded elucidation of the globalization factors actually present, already in the foundation of the SD concept. Comprehensively examined, a foundation built on knowledge capabilities for acting globally, instead of grounded on competence-base, an approach characterized by signs of capability to act globally could be considered more persuasive and holistic in its character. Education, often is heard of as being the ultimate way aimed at paving for realization of the high flying visions of sustainability, is considered being outstanding for implementing sustainability knowledge formation for reflections with a character of deep thinking for change in - and development of - everyday acting. At the same time it is a fact that Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is too complex and challenging for teachers to handle due to its multidisciplinary approach. And, even a bigger challenge, if focusing the initial process, learning SD transdisciplinarily seems to be experienced as almost an impossible task – at least at upper secondary school level due to the organization and structure of schools from a national perspective with emphasis on measuring and subject matters. In particular, the measuring and comparison in international contexts as TIMSS, PISA, and OECD, makes it hard to develop a specific content with an adequate content of ESD. Thereby, also the global dimensions of ESD get some disapproving attention and are criticized for unsympathetically authorize and give legitimacy to globalization brought into the curriculum. My point of departure is in education, and my focus is on learning and teaching sustainability issues locally - with consciousness of the balance between the local parts and the global influences as a whole. The relations between the local parts as such, and the relations to the whole planet. My empirical study aims at showing some concrete examples of how planetary or “global” sustainability education i.e. “global” teaching and “global” learning could emerge through the decades from the separate starting points of EE, SD and ESD in an increasingly globalized world. Research on new settings of educational approaches, with the potential to facilitate real transdisciplinary thinking, and seeking to integrate SD ideas into the curriculum, must be given priority (Reid & Petocz). The aim of the studyfocuses the specific capabilities teachers require, and teaching approaches developed, meeting new settings of transdisciplinary sustainability teaching and learning situations locally including a global dimension. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used Context: Upper secondary school with global ESD profile staging for transdisciplinary collaboration among teachers. The teachers have competence in twelve different subject matters, and make changes in their schedules, collaborate and discuss educational development preparing a three-weeks project on design of city sector for sustainable living, the pupils in two classes in small teams carry out the mission considering the various dimensions of SD. Research Method/Approach: Phenomenography (Marton & Booth, 1997). Data Collection: With a phenomenographic approach, semi-structured interview questions were analysed describing the experiences of teachers concerning global teaching and learning of SD. Upper secondary school teachers (n=12) are in teams educating SD transdisciplinarily with a global dimension in a local context. The teachers are interviewed three times (45 minutes) in a longitudinal study (before, in the middle of, and after the specific “Sustainable City” project). Data Analysis: The recorded interviews are transcribed and read thoroughly, stressing the approaches in transdisciplinary teaching of GLSD. The analysis performed used contextual analysis (Svensson) choosing and delimiting phenomenon as a part of the world, and distinguishing its integral parts and their relations to each other. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings The result highlights teachers´ experiences of transdisciplinary teaching and learning with a global dimension towards sustainability in relation to local teaching challenges. Findings concern the role of awareness raising dialogues, various subject matter expertise, critical knowledge capabilities related to collaborative knowledge formation of GLSD and a learner perspective. APPROACH 1: Teachers participate by assisting. APPROACH 2: Teachers "own" and have driving force. Five Main Attitudes among the teachers approaching transdisciplinary teaching (TT) for GLSD were recognized: critical, supportive, complementing, cogent (power to influence or convince) or trenchant (vigorous, forceful), and persuasive (capable of convincing; power to induce action). The investigation shows teachers´ understanding of the didactic process of initiating globalised teaching of sustainability, even though featured continuity in their teaching of GLSD is unusual. In any educational context – in this teaching practice, particularly – the concept of GLSD continuously needs to be renegotiated by participating teachers in every concrete transdisciplinary teaching and learning situation. A problematic relationship seems built into the concept of transdisciplinary teaching – departing from the local teacher teams´ incapability to handle the complex transdisciplinary education of SD, which notwithstanding might be facilitated within the field recognized as global learning for sustainable development. References Hansson, B. (2000), Förutsättningar för gymnasieelevers kunskapsbildning och för undervisning inom miljöområdet. Doctorial Thesis. Department of Education, Lund University. Marton, Ference (1981): Phenomenography–describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science, 10, 177–200. Nordén, B. (2012). Teachers´ reflection initiating teaching of global learning for sustainable development at AERA2012, April 16, Vancouver. Nordén, B. & Anderberg, E. (2012). Sustainable Development through Global Learning and Teaching. In Madu, C. N. & Kuei, C–H (Eds.) Handbook of Sustainability Management, pp. 379-401. London: Imperial College Press. Nordén, B., Avery, H. & Anderberg, E. (2012). Learning in global settings: developing transitions for meaning-making. Research in Comparative and International Education 7(4) pp. 514-529, Symposium Journals. Rauch, F. & Steiner,R. (2006). School development through Education for Sustainable Development in Austria. Environmental Education Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 115–127. Reid, A. & Petocz, P. ( 2006). University lecturers´ understanding of sustainability. Higher Education (2006) 51: 105–123. Rost. J. (2004). Competencies for global learning, The Development Education Journal, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 6-8. Scott, W., & Gough, S. (2003). Sustainable development and learning: framing the issues. London and NY: RoutledgeFalmer. Scott, W., & Gough, S. (Eds.). (2004). Key issues in sustainable development and learning: a critical review. London and NY: RoutledgeFalmer. Sund, Per & Wickman, Per-Olof (2008). Teachers’ objects of responsibility: something to care about in education for sustainable development? Environmental Education Research, Vol. 14, No. 2, 145-163. Svensson, Lennart (2004): Forskningsmetoders analytiska och kontextuella kvaliteter. [Research methods’ analytical and contextual qualities]. In Carl Martin Allwood, ed: Perspektiv på kvalitativ metod [Perspectives on Qualitative Method], pp 65–95. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Tsui, A. B. M. (2004). The shared space of learning. In: Marton, F. and Tsui, A. B. M. (2004). Classroom discourse and the space of learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum associates
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9.
  • Nordén, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Hållbarhetsdilemman och platsbaserat arbete i förskolelärarutbildningen (Sustainability dilemmas and place-based work in preschool teacher education)
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Förskolelärares kompetens är strategisk för hållbarhetsarbete i förskolan. En kursuppgift om intressekonflikter kring hållbarhet för studenter på förskolelärarprogrammet presenteras här. Uppgiften tar sin utgångspunkt i en plats i närområdet. Studenter får därigenom både problematisera och använda sin erfarenhet och kännedom om den lokala platsen i utformandet av relevanta pedagogiska aktiviteter. Utvidgat abstrakt: Hållbar utveckling i högre utbildning är ett brett fält som inbegriper såväl formuleringar i övergripande måldokument som konkreta handlingsplaner på institutionsnivå, gällande allt från miljöanpassning av universitetet som fysisk verksamhet, till frågan om hållbarhetsperspektiv i utbildningarnas eller forskningens innehåll (ue4sd outcomes). Bland de utbildningar som ges har lärarutbildningarna (Rauch & Steiner 2013; UNESCO 2005; Wals 2014) ett särskilt intresse avseende att utveckla kompetenser för samhällets övergång till hållbarhet. Skolan når de flesta medborgare och bildar grund för ungas fortsatta utveckling, men påverkar även deras syn på kunskapsparadigm, värderingar och expertis. Medan utbildning och yrkesutövning efter grundskolan delas upp i olika specialiseringar, kan elever i skola och förskola bilda grund för en integrerad transdisciplinär syn på samhället och den värld vi lever i. Avseende förskola och yngre barns introduktion till hållbarhetsfrågor har det argumenterats att de tidiga åren har stor betydelse för barnets syn på sig själv och på sin plats i världen. De tidiga åren är också viktiga för barnets relation till andra livsformer (Askerlund, Almers, Hyltse-Eckert & Avery, 2014). Samtidigt är det inte helt oproblematiskt att introducera högkomplexa hållbarhetsfrågor i förskolan, eftersom denna syftar att stärka barnets utveckling och socialisering genom lek-baserad pedagogik (Thulin, 2011; Edwards & Cutter-MacKenzie, 2013). Ytterligare problem är att naturvetenskaplig kunskap förmedlas genom lärare som inte själva har en stark utbildning inom naturvetenskaper (Nilsson, 2012). En möjlig ansats för att undvika några av dessa risker är att arbeta praktiskt med lokala frågeställningar, och därigenom koppla reflektioner till lärarstudenternas erfarenheter. Relaterade till plats har identifierats som väsentlig i engagemang för hållbarhet (Beery & Wolf-Watz, 2014), samtidigt som det är viktigt att knyta till förståelse av globala samband (McInerney, Smyth & Down, 2011). Avgörande för utsträckningen i vilken lärarutbildningar skapar utrymme för lärarstudenter att utveckla kompetens i utbildning mot hållbarhet är även: kopplingar till forskningsmiljöer som fokuserar hållbarhetsfrågor; möjligheter att arbeta på tvärs över samhälls- och naturvetenskaper; handlingsorienterad kunskap (Avery & Nordén, 2015). Som exempel presenteras här en uppgift som gavs till studenter på förskolelärarprogrammet inom kursen Naturvetenskap och teknik i förskolan. Uppgiften handlade om hållbar utveckling och intressekonflikter (Öhman & Öhman, 2012). Studenterna skulle utifrån en plats i närområdet med hjälp av omgivningen gestalta och problematisera en intressekonflikt kring hållbarhet. Uppgiften syftade att utmana studenternas och andras tänkande kring hållbarhetsperspektiv, eftersom värderingar av vad som ses som hållbart kan bero på vilket perspektiv som antas, och för vem det skall vara hållbart. Studenterna skulle också fråga sig vilka prioriteringar och bortprioriteringar vi kan bli tvungna att göra för att fatta beslut som på sikt kan ge ett mer hållbart sätt att leva för människa och miljö. Diskussion och problematisering var i fokus i uppgiften. Genom att studenterna kunde välja vilken intressekonflikt de ville arbeta med, hade de möjlighet att relatera till frågeställningar som de själva hade kunskap om. Övningen var placerad i en utomhusmiljö, vilket gjorde att syftningar och de naturvetenskapliga implikationerna blev konkreta och mer entydiga än om de hade enbart representerats verbalt. Flera element i uppgiftsupplägget skulle kunna användas för andra kurser för hållbarhet.
  •  
10.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Towards Sustainability : Teaching and Learning beyond Disciplines through Global Didactics
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Towards sustainability the implementation of Global Learning for Sustainable Development (GLSD) is crucial. A better understanding of how to, from a global didactic angle, establish globally genuine dialogues forming nuanced conceptions of sustainable development (SD) is necessary. Global teaching as well as global learning has to identify the challenges in various contexts for transdisciplinary knowledge formation. Complex demands underlying the discourse of GLSD show that a need for real integration into the curriculum is critical. A global perspective in the curriculum offers students the potential to relate their experiences to a more extensive context. This could contribute to increasing a public awareness of environmental issues, promote environmental training among educators, and improve provision of basic education. In this research, individuals given the opportunity to take command over their learning and their own world experiences within this field, are related to collective learning consciousness, knowledge formation conduct when managing ESD & SD on the Global Curriculum Agenda. The increasing importance of accessible educational communities, and the global character of SD issues provides more learning opportunities – individuals may thus create more nuanced conceptions, to cope with increasing societal complexity (Burbules). More theory-based knowledge of learning and teaching in global settings is needed, since the field mostly is based on policies – empirical investigations rare. The aim is to highlight some crucial elements of the global dimension in teaching and learning towards sustainability, in the context of preventive management strategies from a global didactic angle. The educational perspective of globalization adopted here, as well as limitations in the scope and focus in this presentation, are shaped against the background of the ultimate focus on GLSD. Both individual and collective self-development and self-determination are emphasized, while learning & teaching practices can be adapted to crucial issues, concerning our planet, and its management for SD. The overall objective: seeking for and advancing holistic understanding. Balance theory and practice combining holism and perception: A holistic approach requires an interpretation of the meaning of the parts from an interpretation of the whole and vice versa. Holism and relations are important starting points and a relevant epistemological background to the development of knowledge about the environment. Crucial management skills is required from the teacher as the role of the teacher enhance from being expert. Over the years, the concept of global learning is discussed more and more and developed in the area of developmental and environmental policies and the education of them (Brunold). Global Learning presupposes competencies, which individuals need to acquire if they want to actively shape the development of world society, including management skills (Olum) as team skills, readiness to compromise and cooperate, coping with change, creative & lateral thinking, the ability to deal with insecurity, integrated thinking, and systemic thinking. Intercultural learning could develop ‘global consciousness’ competencies and support global citizenship - and, ‘emergent holistic consciousness’ through the connection of cultures to a complex collective whole, may form a collective learning consciousness. This challenge takes off in the particular global perspective formulated above. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used Phenomenography is the research method used in the conducted studies. Empirical findings, regarding experiences of local challenges of learning and teaching sustainability in global settings, are compared. Through the Young Masters Program (YMP), an online course about sustainability and preventive environmental management strategies, the Global Classroom as Extended Classroom is investigated. STUDY 1. Analyzing pupils experiences of online learning sustainability in a global setting in the research project "Learning in the ICT-extended University". Data collected through a semi-structured online questionnaire, with both closed and open questions (221 students, 19 countries, 2004). STUDY 2. Upper secondary school teachers’ experiences of the YMP were investigated. Data: interviews with the written answers from 26 teachers in 16 countries (Colombia, Denmark, Egypt, Ghana, Greece, India, Jordan, P. R. of China, Lithuania, Mauritius, Poland, Sweden, Tanzania, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Vietnam), 2006. STUDY 3. Implementation study of GLSD in the Swedish pilot project Lund Calling, to facilitate for a number of schools, aiming at implementing the YMP as part of their regular curriculum. Data: semi-structured interviews (n=20) in a longitudinal study at compulsory schools (years 8-9) and upper secondary schools in Lund Municipality (8 students, 5 teachers and 2 headmasters, 2008-2009). Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings The three compared studies discerned the need for developing a better understanding of the global didactic angle, from which GLSD is recognized. Performance studies (TIMSS, PISA, UNESCO’s Delors Report 1996) are criticized for validating and legitimizing curriculum reforms on a basis of ‘global indicators of quality teaching and learning’, with the hidden agenda of promoting a form of ‘new accountability’ to international agencies (i.e. OECD). Research is needed on innovative educational approaches, with the potential to facilitate real transdisciplinary thinking seeking to integrate sustainability ideas into the curriculum. Knowledge formation conduct means improving quality, and the obligation to implement improvements by breaking down barriers, to encourage collective learning consciousness and self-improvement for everyone. An ongoing process of compression-expansion of time/space/meaning appears to be affecting institutions and educational organizations, in their attempts to extend their reach. Media and grassroots organizations appear to perceive the call for GLSD, seeing a task to fulfill in this area. Combining such efforts could further develop appropriate practices for GLSD. Learners could be better equipped to cope with subject matters of great complexity and form nuanced conceptions of sustainability. A condition for such processes is the establishment of a global (and genuine) didactic dialogue. References Anderberg, E., Nordén, B. & Hansson, B. (2009). Global Learning for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: recent trends and critique. International Journal of sustainability in higher education. Vol. 10 No. 4, 2009, 368-378. Brunold, A. O. (2005). Global Learning and Education for Sustainable Development. Higher Education in Europe, Vol. 30, Nos. 3-4. Burbules, N.C. (2000). Does the Internet constitute a global educational community? In N.C. Burbules & C.A. Torres (Eds), Globalization and education – critical perspectives. 323-356. New York: Routledge. Hartmeyer, H. (2001). Globales Lernen in Österreich—Erfahrungen, Erwartungen, Perspektiven. In Halbartschlager, F. (Ed)(2001) Eine Welt. Beiträge zu globalem Lernen. Symposion globales Lernen pp. 34-42. Südwind Agentur, Vienna. Marsella, A. J. (2007). Education and training for a global psychology. In: Toward a Global Psychology: Theory, Research, Intervention, and Pedagagogy by Stevens, M. J. & Gielen, U. P. (Ed)( 2007). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Nordén, B. & Anderberg, E. (2012). Sustainable Development through Global Learning and Teaching. In Madu, C. N. & Kuei, C–H (Eds.) Handbook of Sustainability Management, 379-401. London: Imperial College Press. Olum, Y. (2004). Modern management theories and practices: a critical Overview. Paper presented at the 15th East African Central Banking Course, 12th July 2004, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies. Rost. J. (2004). Competencies for global learning. The development Education Journal Volume 11 Number 1 2004. Scheunpflug, A. & Asbrand, B. (2006). Global Education and education for sustainability. Environmental Education Research, 12-(1), 33-46. Svensson, L. & Wihlborg, M. (2010). Internationalising the Content of Higher Education – the need for a curriculum perspective. Higher education. Published online: Springer Netherlands. Tatto, M. T. (2007). Reforming Teaching Globally. Oxford: Cambridge University Press Tojo, N. & Lindhqvist, T. (2009). Teaching fellow students as a way of motivating future decision makers. In E. Bommenel & M. Irhammar (Eds), Osynligt och självklart? Lund: Media-Tryck.
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