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Sökning: Kari Trost

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  • Trost, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping swedish females' educational pathways in terms of academic competence and adjustment problems
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Social Issues. - 0022-4537 .- 1540-4560. ; 64:1, s. 157-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patterns of academic competence, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems were examined in females from the longitudinal Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA) program in order to understand unexpected patterns of educational attainment and problems in adulthood. Person-oriented methods were used to identify patterns of competence and problems at ages 10, 13, and 43. These patterns were linked across time to reveal expected and unexpected educational pathways from childhood to adulthood. Most later patterns were consistent with earlier patterns of competence and problems. This structural-level stability supported our hypothesis that competence and problems tend to be inversely related and function together over time as integrated systems. We focus on one unexpected educational pathway characterized by individuals whose problems remain low over time despite stable levels of low competence. This unexpected educational pathway was examined further in terms of optimal versus general adjustment consequences in adulthood. Some policy implications of studying individual patterns and pathways are discussed.
  • Trost, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • The Study of Family Context : Examining Its Role for Identity Coherence and Adolescent Adjustment for Swedish Adolescents
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Early Adolescence. - 0272-4316 .- 1552-5449. ; 40:2, s. 165-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether characteristics of the parent-child relationship in adolescence are important for adjustment and identity development. Participants were recruited from schools in central Sweden for a larger longitudinal study when the cohort was 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 3,667). Characteristics of the parent-child relationship, like parental warmth, democratic parenting, and child communication, and adolescent adjustment problems and identity coherence were studied. It was found that democratic parenting was positively linked to child communication but negatively associated with problematic peer relationships and behavioral problems. Parental warmth was linked to other parenting characteristics as well as identity cohesion. Democratic parenting was linked to greater school engagement and identity coherence for boys and girls. Gender differences were found. The findings support the notion that democratic and warm parenting may provide support for adolescent identity development and adjustment.
  • Tillfors, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Relationships between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and antisocial behaviors : Evidence from a prospective study of adolescent boys
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0887-6185 .- 1873-7897. ; 23:5, s. 718-724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is understood about generalized and non-generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) and their associations With co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. In the present study, we investigated adolescent boys with SAD symptoms and considered depressive symptoms as well as antisocial behaviors when looking for patterns during two developmental time periods: junior high and high school. Participants in the analyses were part of a longitudinal study. No patterns were found linking antisocial problems and non-generalized SAD in either junior high or high school. Furthermore, it was uncommon for youths in the non-generalized SAD Subgroup to develop comorbidity over time. The generalized SAD subgroup of boys, however, was likely to develop comorbidity either with depressive symptoms only or with depressive symptoms and antisocial tendencies. Our findings Suggest that developmental pathways for SAD subgroups may differ. 
  • Trost, Kari (författare)
  • A new look at parenting during adolescence : reciprocal interactions in everyday life
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this dissertation I pose the question: Under what conditions are parent-child relationships linked to good, or bad, adolescent adjustment and under what conditions are they not? Study I focused on subjects with multiproblematic adjustment. It was proposed that multiproblematic adjustment in adolescence (as well as in late childhood and early adulthood) has to be seen in terms of individual and family characteristics early in life. The findings confirmed the hypothesis that children characterized by both pre-school conduct problem and poor mother-child relations, later in life showed considerably more problems in different environments than did children with other combinations of conduct problems and mother relations. Studies II-IV aimed at understanding the association between parent-child relationships and adjustment specifically during adolescence. Study II examined how parental trust could be gained, the importance of it, and how it could be linked to adolescent adjustment. Since the trust that parents expressed relative to their children was assumed to be primarily based on the knowledge parents have about their children, three possible sources of parental knowledge were examined (of child’s feelings and concerns, of past delinquency, and of daily activities) along with sources of parental knowledge itself. The results showed that parents’ knowledge of daily activities that came from the child’s spontaneous disclosure was most closely linked to their trust in their child, and parents’ trust, in turn, was associated with good parent-child relations and good adjustment on part of the adolescent. Study III examined how parental control, warmth, and communication in the parent-child relationship are associated with positive and negative adolescent adjustment. Structural equations tests of a theoretical model suggested that the link from parental warmth through parental control to adolescent adjustment was weak compared with the path from parental warmth through child disclosure to adolescent adjustment. Across informants, direct parental control was minimally important, if at all. Study IV examined whether adolescents’ not wanting parental involvement was a normal part of the parent-child relationship during adolescence. It was shown that not wanting parents to be involved generally was a sign of poor adolescent adjustment, even when controlling for problem behaviors and family problems. Person-oriented analyses identified a group of adolescents who wanted low levels of parental involvement, who were normal in terms of family problems and behavior problems and showed evidence of healthy psychological functioning. In view of the small size of this group (11%), and the results from the analyses of linear relations, it was concluded that the combination of adolescents’ desires to manage their own free time and healthy functioning is not as normative as it is normally thought. Overall, the results from these four studies provide a basis for taking a bi-directional approach to understanding the parent-child relationship during adolescence, and in particular examining the child’s active role in his or her development. Furthermore, two new issues were brought up in the present dissertation, 1) a new interpretation of problem aggregation and 2) a new view of the parent-child relationship during adolescence. Directions for future research, practical implications for adolescents, their parents, and the issue of generality are included in the discussion.
  • Trost, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent girls in context : Not all patterns may be created equal
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal for Person-Oriented Research. - 2002-0244 .- 2003-0177. ; 4:1, s. 29-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Much research exists on the importance of risk factors within individual contexts of parenting, neighborhood, school, and peers for adolescent development. However little exists on whether risks in certain contexts may be more or less likely for risk accumulation across contexts – referred to as the Weighted Risk Phenomenon (WRP). One way to study WRP is to study adolescent patterns of co-existing risk characteristics across domains and over time. The present study focuses on studying information about parenting, neighborhood, school, and peers in order to understand how risk can have different patterns over time. Participants were all girls recruited from junior high schools in rural and metropolitan areas of Sweden. The results illustrate that there are stable structural and individual pathways across four contexts of adolescent girls which may represent risk over time. Structurally, patterns which emerged at grade 7 reappeared again a year later and again a year after that in grade 9. In general, the same individuals seem to re-emerge in the same or similar patterns over time. Those who showed risk accumulation patterns tended to report prior risk factors in the parenting context. Such trends are supported in the literature and give support to the postulation that parenting is one of the strongest risk factors for adolescents. The findings indicate possible underpinnings of WRP.
  • Trost, Kari (författare)
  • Adolescents in Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Encyclopedia of Adolescence. - New York : Routledge. - 9780415966672 ; , s. 947-965
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This book chapter is in the Routledge International encyclopedia of adolescence. The encyclopedia is a comprehensive socio-cultural survey of the lives of adolescents around the world. In four volumes, the work will explore all aspects of the lives of young people between childhood and adulthood, i.e., between (roughly) age 10 and 25. Coverage will not only stress psycho-pathological issues, but instead will cover a wide range of topics concerning the lives of young people in countries as varied as Iran, India, Sweden, the USA, or Japan. In the present chapter, the following issues are presented about youth in Sweden: period of adolescence, beliefs, gender, the self, family relationships, friends and peer/youth culture, love and sexuality, health risk behaviors, education, work, media, politics and military, as well as issues that may be particularly unique to Sweden.
  • Trost, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • An Explorative Study on Parenting in Sweden : Is There a Swedish Style?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Psychology Bulletin. - : American Psychological Association (APA). ; 19:3, s. 30-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the psychological literature pertaining to parenting, parents’ warmth, control, and communication are vital for positive adjustment of adolescents where high levels are considered to be the most prevalent and beneficial. Previous cross-cultural studies have however found the effects of other parenting patterns during adolescence to be equally prevalent as well as beneficial for adolescent adjustment which puts into question whether high on all three aspects of parenting could be more represented in some cultures than in others. In the present study, we question the representativeness of the pattern in the Swedish context. In the present study, we examined 888 adolescents’ reports on parenting. For boys, a neglecting, average but low communication, average but low control, average, average with warmth and authoritative patterns of parenting was found. For girls, a neglecting, average but low communication, average but high control, average, and authoritative patterns of parenting was found. The most prevalent parenting pattern found for both girls and boys was marked by moderate levels of parental control, warmth, and communication followed by authoritative (high levels of control, warmth, and communication). Of the 456 girls, the vast majority (41%) reported their parents as being average on parental warmth, control, and communication. Of the 432 boys, nearly half (46%) reported their parents as being average on parental warmth, control, and communication. Future directions on parenting research in Sweden are discussed.
  • Trost, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Not wanting parents' involvement : Sign of autonomy or sign of problems?
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 1740-5629 .- 1740-5610. ; 4:3, s. 314-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigated whether adolescents' desires to manage their own free time, without parents' involvement, reflected problems or healthy independence. Participants were 1057 adolescents, their parents, and teachers. Initially, wanting parental involvement was related to disclosure, parental knowledge, and positive adjustment across contexts and wanting low parental involvement was related to negative adjustment. With closer examination of adolescents, two groups of adolescents who were similar on desires for low parental involvement but who differed on parental desires for involvement were uncovered. Those adolescents who wanted low parental involvement and whose parents desired involvement were consistently linked to poor adjustment in multicontexts. Those adolescents who wanted low parental involvement and whose parents wanted low parental involvement did not have more problems than their wanting parental involvement peers. Results indicate that not wanting parental involvement should be studied in terms of multiple developmental patterns.
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