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  • Tjernberg, Catharina, 1953- (författare)
  • Specialpedagogik i skolvardagen En studie med fokus på framgångsfaktorer i läs- och skrivlärande
  • 2011
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a praxis-oriented case study of written language activities in Forms 1–5 in the nine-year Swedish compulsory school. The emphasis is on pupils at risk of de­veloping reading and writing disabilities. The aim of this study is to analyse the factors underlying successful reading and writing education and the pedagogical conditions promoting re­flective didactic skills, focusing on the students’ develop­ment of reading and writing abili­ties.The praxis-oriented approach is expressed by means of working with classroom ob­servat­ions and reflective communication with the teachers. Four classes at the junior and intermedi­ate levels of the nine-year compulsory Swedish school have been studied for two years. Both the schools and the teachers have been chosen strategically. Quantita­tive and qualitative data indicate that the selected schools have special qualifications. The teachers were chosen because they have proved particu­larly successful in devel­oping reading and wri­ting abilities of their pupils, including those with docu­mented reading and writing disabilities.Reports from the National Swedish Agency for Education, as well as large inter­na­t­ional surveys, indicate that the consensus concerning reading and writing edu­cation achieved by science during the past decade has had very little impact on everyday class­room activities. One of the underlying questions is how research re­sults are suc­cessfully implemented in everyday school work.The results show that the teachers use a wide variety of methods in response to the wide variety of students´ requirements. The lessons are characterized by in­tense activity on the part of both teacher and pupils, and of a high level of interac­tivity in communi­cation, reading, writing and counting. A surprising pattern is that the teach­ers very consciously work with oral presentation in various topics and genres. This gives students with reading and writing difficulties an op­portunity to succeed.The instruction is notable for being well-structured, with a balance between form and function, a high level of challenging tasks and visibilization of individual pro­gress. The special needs education aspect of the instruction appears in the te­achers’ abilities to arrange pedagogical situations in which a wide variety of abilities can be expressed and developed. The teachers show a positive belief in their stu­dents and strive to make them successful in a social context.This study indicates the importance of a solid theoretical background, enabling the te­acher to identify the developmental stage the student is at and to adapt the instruction accordingly. Another important factor is the ability of the teacher to in­stantly see and grasp pedagogical opportunities and to interpret and utilize the diag­nostic signals in the classroom. One im­portant conclusion is that reading and writing education, in order to be successful, must be viewed in a context of lan­guage development as a whole, involving both its oral and its writ­ten aspects.This study also demonstrates that research results are perceived as more acces­si­ble and relevant by the teachers when the researchers’ focus is on applied peda­gog­ics, al­lowing theory and practical applications to interact. This opens up the possi­bility of es­tablishing and incor­porating scientific theories on learning in every­day, practical school work.
  • Ramberg, Joacim, 1977- (författare)
  • Focus on Special Educational Support in Swedish Upper Secondary Schools : provided within or outside the students´ regular classes?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Marginalization Processes : studies of membership and participation across disciplines and sites. - Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Support activities and how they are organized are important factors when supporting students at risk of not achieving educational goals and in order to prevent students dropping out of school. International and national school policy documents advocate that support to students should preferably be given within the students regular class or teaching group.This chapter focuses on where the special support, by special education professionals and other school staff at the schools, is provided in the Swedish upper secondary schools. Of particular focus is whether the support is provided within or outside the students´ regular classes.The provided support is also discussed in relation to applicable national and international policy documents and previous research related to marginalization at an individual level and marginalization effects on the labour market.A large proportion of young people, not only in Sweden but in many parts of Europe, leave upper secondary education without complete grades. The opportunities for these students to establish themselves in the labour market are more limited than those of students that successfully complete upper secondary education. Dropping out of school may not only imply a personal failure for many individuals, but it can also be considered a major social problem. It may imply that a rather large group of youths are experiencing school failure, which can lead many times to further difficulties in the labour market and to other forms of marginalization. The support provided by schools is important in decreasing the number of drop outs. At the same time, the location of support is also important. It is pointed out in previous research that support outside the students´ regular class can lead to stigma effects, feelings of non-participation and marginalization not only within school, but also later in the labour market.The educational system should provide an equitable education to all students and should provide support to those students that are experiencing difficulties at school in order to prevent students’ drop out and experiences of school failure. In the Salamanca Statement and Swedish national policy documents, the basic principle for school is that all students, whenever possible, should be taught together, regardless of any difficulties or mutual differences.The data come from a cross-sectional total population survey and covers all upper secondary schools (N=950) in Sweden within the academic school year 2010/2011. The response rate for the survey is 80.4%, and the number of schools included is 764. The data were collected from upper secondary schools with a questionnaire that was addressed to the school principals. The results reported show that providing support for students in need of special support outside their regular class in upper secondary schools is extensive. This way of providing support is more common than supporting students within their regular class settings. The task given most attention by the schools special 2education professionals, as reported by the respondents of the schools, was also to support students outside their regular class, while supporting within the regular class was reported less frequently.These two different locations of support are further discussed in the context of the concepts social exclusion and social inclusion, and the implications they might have.The findings are in accordance with previous research that points out that schools often focus on supporting students outside their regular classes. Thus, the results reinforce and confirm previous findings, which could be interpreted (but not necessarily imply) a social exclusionary approach, in clear contrast to what policy documents advocate.
  • Swärd, Ann-Katrin, 1950- (författare)
  • Att säkerställa skriftspråklighet genom medveten arrangering Wittingmetodens tillämpning i några olika lärandemiljöer
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The proposed Grounded Theory has been derived from how experienced teachers and their pupils, in four different teaching contexts, have used ’The Witting method’ to maximize literacy development among their pupils. The theory has been grounded through repeated comparisons and analysis of the empirical data.The specific aim of the thesis is to conceptualize and generate a theory about what four teachers and their pupils (n=40, over the period of the research), in different contexts, and over a number of years, actually do when working with The Witting method. A wider goal is to apply the implications of the derived grounded theory to general and special education theory in helping to alleviate reading and writing difficulties and prevent pupils from failing.The results show that the teachers have systematically strived to ensure each pupil’s reading and writing development and they do this through what is labeled ‘didactic arranging’. They also show an ability to adapt to situations, materials and spaces without losing their long-term aims. They are in charge of three competencies: ’me’, ’you’, and ’we’ - expressing this competence in documentation, by reflection and always in close collaboration with pupils and their families. The observed use of The Witting method would seem to enable a diagnostic mode of teaching as it contains tools that allow a teacher to follow each pupil’s reading and writing development. Teachers, pupils and the didactic procedures are shown to be in constant interaction. It was also found to be important that teachers believe that every pupil can learn. These teachers’ collective motto could be summed up as follows: never stop giving support and never stop assessing progress.
  • Westling Allodi, Mara (författare)
  • Specialpedagogik i en skola för alla : Granskning av specialpedagogiska verksamheter i en svensk kommun
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Kommunerna har en stor frihet i utformningen av stödet till de elever som har rätt till det. Den specialpedagogiska verksamheten får olika skepnader: den kan vara knuten till arbetslag, kan omfatta grupper och klasser tänkta för elever med specifika funktionshinder och som finns i vanliga grundskolor, men den kan även bestå av fristående enheter. Särskoleklasser utgör en verksamhet som ingår i vissa grundskolor, medan ett växand eantal av elever som är berättigade till särskolan väljer att gå i en grundskoleklass. Finansieringen av dessa verksamheter kan ske på olika sätt: med central anslag från utbildningsnämnden eller via skolornas ordinarie budget, eller genom att den ursprungliga skolan köper en plats för en elev på en specialenhet.Dessa verksamheter förväntas samverka och samarbeta med den övriga skolorgansiationen, med andra lokala och statliga myndigheter, samt vara lyhörda för föräldrar och elever, i sysftet att tillförsäkra varje elevs rätt till en utbildning som stärker ens känsla av värdighet och integritet.Dessa verksamheter behöver hantera kontrasterande målsättningar. Hänsyn till lagar förordningar och politiska styrdokument - både internationella och nationella - ekonomisk effektivitet, kvalité etiska överväganden och individens rättigheter ska vägas samma i verksamheter av olika slag. Om en av dessa målsättninga rblir dominerande kan den motarbeta uppnåendet av de andra målsättningarna.Vilka målsättningar styr och vilka krafter påverkar utformningen av specialpedagogiska verksamheter på kommun- och skolnivå?Vilka blir konsekvenserna av olika organisatoriska modeller? vilka möjligheter och hinder upplevs i dessa verksamheter? Denna rapport försöker svara på dessa frågor genom att granska specialpedagogiska verksamheter i en kommun.
  • Ek, Ulla, 1948- (författare)
  • Specialpedagogik – en framtidsvy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Barn med funktionshinder. - Lund : Studentlitteratur. - 978-91-44-07187-9 ; s. 327-333
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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