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Sökning: WFRF:(Ahlgren Christina)

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  • Hammarström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Living in the shadow of unemployment - an unhealthy life situation : a qualitative study of young people from leaving school until early adult life
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BMC. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude of youth unemployment there is a lack of studies, which explore the relations between health experiences and labour market position in various contexts. The aim of this paper was to analyse health experiences among young people in NEET (not in education, employment or training) in relation to labour market position from leaving school until early adult life.METHOD: The population consists of everyone (six women, eight men) who became unemployed directly after leaving compulsory school in a town in Northern Sweden. Repeated personal interviews were performed from age 16 until age 33. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.RESULTS: Health experiences can be viewed as a contextual process, related to the different phases of leaving school, entering the labour market, becoming unemployed and becoming employed. Perceived relief and hope were related to leaving compulsory school, while entering the labour market was related to setbacks and disappointments as well as both health-deteriorating and health-promoting experiences depending on the actual labour market position. Our overarching theme of "Living in the shadow of unemployment - an unhealthy life situation" implies that it is not only the actual situation of being unemployed that is problematic but that the other phases are also coloured by earlier experiences of unemployment .CONCLUSION: A focus on young people's health experiences of transitions from school into the labour market brings a new focus on the importance of macroeconomic influence on social processes and contextualised mechanisms from a life-course perspective.
  • Kadi, F, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of different training programs on the trapezius muscle of women with work-related neck and shoulder myalgia
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - Berlin : Springer-Verlag New York. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 100:3, s. 253-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to examine the effects of training on the structural characteristics of the trapezius muscle in women with work-related trapezius myalgia. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after 10 weeks of three different training programs (strength, endurance and coordination). Enzyme-immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess muscle fibre types, fibre area, capillary supply and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. There was an increase in the proportion of type IIA fibres in strength trained group (P < 0.05). Strength training elicited a preferential increase in the area of type II fibres (P < 0.05); both strength and endurance programs induced an increase in the number of capillaries around type I and IIA muscle fibres. Finally, all training programs induced a decrease in the proportion of COX-negative fibres. In conclusion, the trapezius muscle of women with neck and shoulder myalgia is characterised by a great potential of adaptation to physical exercise over a period of 10 weeks. The significant changes in the number of capillaries and the specific changes induced by training at the level of muscle fibres might well explain the improvement of muscle function.
  • Lundman, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Use of the model of Inner Strength for analysing reflective interviews in a group of healthy middle-aged adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Inner Strength has been described as a human resource that promotes well-being linked to health. The aim of this study was to explore how Inner Strength and its four dimensions are manifested in interviews in a group of middle-aged healthy women and men.Methods: Retrospective reflective interviews with middle-aged healthy women (n = 5) and men (n = 4) selected from a population study were content analysed deductively.Results: The following themes and their constituents were found in the respective dimensions of the Model of Inner Strength. Firmness: having a drive to act, being purposeful, having trust in one’s competence, and having a positive view of life. Connectedness: being in community, receiving and giving support, and, receiving and giving care. Creativity: changing unsatisfactory life situations, seeing new opportunities, and realizing dreams. Stretchability: balancing between options, and extending oneself.Conclusions: Expressions that were interpreted as belonging to Inner Strength could be referred the different dimensions of Inner Strength. The Model of Inner Strength is suitable for analysing Inner Strength among middle-aged men and women. The findings indicate that Inner Strength can be identified in human beings’ narratives if asked for.
  • Novak, Masuma, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • A life-course approach in explaining social inequity in obesity among young adult men and women.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International journal of obesity (2005). - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 30:1, s. 191-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To examine the cumulative influence of adverse behavioural, social, and psychosocial circumstances from adolescence to young adulthood in explaining social differences in overweight and obesity at age 30 years and if explanations differ by gender.A 14-year longitudinal study with 96.4% response rate.Data from 547 men and 497 women from a town in north Sweden who were baseline examined at age 16 years and prospectively followed up to age 30 years.Overweight and obesity were ascertained at ages 16 and 30 years. Occupation and education were used to measure socioeconomic status. The explanatory measurements were: age at menarche, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, TV viewing, home and school environment, social support, social network, and work environment.No gender or social difference in overweight was observed at age 16 years. At age 30 years, significantly more men than women (odds ratio (OR) = 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-3.68) were overweight or obese. Educational level was associated with overweight at age 30 years, but not occupational class. Both men (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.10-2.19) and women (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.16-2.73) with low education (< or =11 years) were at risk of overweight. The factors that explained the educational gradient in overweight among men were low parental support in education during adolescence, and physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and nonparticipation in any association during young adulthood. The educational gradient in overweight in women was explained mostly by adolescence factors, which include early age at menarche, physical inactivity, parental divorce, not being popular in school, and low school control. Restricted financial resource during young adulthood was an additional explanatory factor for women. All these factors were significantly more common among men and women with low education than with high education.Social inequities in overweight reflect the cumulative influence of multiple adverse circumstances experienced from adolescence to young adulthood. Underlying pathways to social inequity in overweight differ between men and women. Policy implications to reduce social inequity in overweight include reduction of social differences in health behaviours and social circumstances that take place at different life stages, particularly psychosocial circumstances during adolescence.
  • Novak, Masuma, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Social and health-related correlates of intergenerational and intragenerational social mobility among Swedish men and women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Public health. - 1476-5616 .- 0033-3506. ; 126:4, s. 349-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To explore the pattern and determinants of inter- and intragenerational occupational mobility among Swedish men and women. STUDY DESIGN: A Swedish 14-year prospective longitudinal study (response rate 96.5%). METHODS: Detailed information on 546 men and 495 women regarding their occupation, health status, health-related behaviour, psychosocial environment at home and school, material recourses and ethnicity prior to mobility were available at 16, 21 and 30 years of age. Odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression to determine social mobility. RESULTS: The results indicated that being popular at school predicted upward mobility, and being less popular at school predicted downward mobility. Additionally, material deprivation, economic deprivation, shorter height (women) and poor health behavioural factors predicted downward mobility. Among this cohort, being less popular at school was more common among subjects whose parents had low socio-economic status. Occupational mobility was not influenced by ethnic background. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from height (women), health status was not associated with mobility for men or women either inter- or intragenerationally. Unfavourable school environment was a consistent predictor of mobility for both genders. The results indicate that schools should be used as a setting for interventions aimed at reducing socio-economic health inequities. Targeted school interventions that are designed to assist higher educational attainment of socio-economically disadvantaged youth would help to break the social chain of risk experienced during this time, and thereby alter their life course in ways that would reduce subsequent social inequities in health and well-being.
  • Stenlund, Therese, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitively oriented behavioral rehabilitation in combination with Qigong for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout : REST - a randomized clinical trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. - 1070-5503 .- 1532-7558. ; 16:3, s. 294-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundDespite an increase in the occurrence of burnout, there is no agreement on what kind of rehabilitation these patients should be offered.PurposePrimary aim of this study was to evaluate effects on psychological variables and sick leave rates by two different group rehabilitation programs for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout. Rehabilitation program A (Cognitively oriented Behavioral Rehabilitation (CBR) and Qigong) was compared with rehabilitation program B (Qigong only).MethodIn a randomized clinical trial, 96 women and 40 men with a mean age of 41.6 ± 7.4 years were allocated to one of the two rehabilitation programs.ResultsA per-protocol analysis showed no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. Both groups improved significantly over time with reduced levels of burnout, self-rated stress behavior, fatigue, depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive symptoms, and sick leave rates. In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients in program A had fewer obsessive–compulsive symptoms and larger effect sizes in self-rated stress behavior and obsessive–compulsive symptoms compared to patients in program B.ConclusionThis study showed no differences in effect between CBR and Qigong compared with Qigong only in a per-protocol analysis. Both rehabilitation programs showed positive effect for patients with burnout.
  • Stenlund, Therese, 1970- (författare)
  • Rehabilitation for patients with burnout
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Stress-related diseases and burnout have increased in Sweden during the last decades. In 2006, the most common diagnoses for new cases of sickness compensation were mental and behavioural disorders in both women and men. In spite of the large group of people seeking care for and on long-term sickness absence due to stress-related diseases and burnout, there is no agreement on which treatment they should be offered. The overall aim of this thesis was to describe patients on longterm sick leave because of burnout and to evaluate rehabilitation programs for this patient group. Two patient samples were recruited from the Stress Clinic at the University Hospital in Umeå, Sweden: REST (Rehabilitation for stressrelated disease and burnout; n=136) and QIST (Qigong for stress-related disease and burnout; n=82). A general population sample was from the 2004 Northern Sweden MONICA survey (n=573). Patients in REST were randomised into a 1-year rehabilitation program to either program A (Cognitively-oriented Behavioural Rehabilitation (CBR) and Qigong), or to program B (Qigong alone). In Paper I, baseline data were compared with data from the MONICA sample. In paper II, programs A and B were compared regarding effects on psychological variables and sick leave rates, and in Paper III, 18 patients from program A and B were interviewed to explore subjective experiences of the rehabilitation programs. Patients in QIST were allocated to an intervention with Qigong twice a week for 12 weeks or a control group. Psychological and physical measurements were assessed in QIST. Data were collected by questionnaires, physical measurements, the register on sick leave, and interviews. Patients with burnout reported a more restricted social network and higher work demands than the general population. In relation to women from a general population, women with burnout more often worked “with people”, reported high job strain, a more sedentary work situation and less emotional support. A per-protocol analysis showed no significant differences in treatment effect between program A and B in REST or between the intervention and control group in QIST. All groups improved significantly over time with reduced levels of burnout, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. In REST, lower scores on obsessive-compulsive symptoms, stress behaviour, and sick leave rates were found in both programs and in QIST both groups increased dynamic balance and physical capacity. In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients in program A in REST had significantly fewer obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and larger effect sizes in stress behaviour and obsessive-compulsive symptoms compared to patients in program B. Patients in both REST programs perceived that the 1-year rehabilitation program gave them specific tools to use in secondary prevention. They also emphasised that the good encounters, affirmation and group cohesiveness they perceived during the 8 rehabilitation was a necessary basis for initiation of a behavioural change leading to recovery. In conclusion, compared to a general population, patients with burnout perceived more demands at work and less social support. Lack of emotional support seemed to be more associated with burnout among women. There were no differences in effect between CBR and Qigong compared to Qigong alone, or between a 12 week Qigong intervention compared to a control condition. Improvements were found in all groups in the rehabilitation programs. CBR combined with Qigong have some advantages compared to Qigong alone. An environment with good encounters and affirmation of the patients was experiences as important by the patients and group rehabilitation had advantages as recognition and support from the group. Early rehabilitation measures are important to prevent long-term sickness absence. In future rehabilitation programs it might be necessary to have a more individualized approach and choose treatments preferred by the patient.
  • Wahlström, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • Upper arm postures and movements in female hairdressers across four full working days
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - : Oxford University Press. - 0003-4878 .- 1475-3162. ; 54:5, s. 584-594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To describe upper arm postures and movements among female hairdressers, including the variability between hairdressers, between days within hairdresser, and between tasks, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of exposures in the job, considering possible sources of variation and recovery, and discussing appropriate exposure assessment strategies.Methods: Data on upper arm postures were collected using inclinometers during four working days the same week from 28 female hairdressers working in 13 salons. Twenty of the hairdressers noted customer on and off times in a diary, to allow separate analyses of customer tasks (CT) and auxiliary non-customer tasks (AT), including breaks. For a number of posture and movement variables, mean values and variance components between subjects (BS) and within subjects between days (BD) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in one-way random effect models.Results: For the 20 hairdressers with diaries, CT accounted for 279 min (58%) (SDBS = 39 min and SDBD = 85 min) of the working day and AT and breaks for 207 min (42%) (SDBS = 46 min and SDBD = 88 min). The hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60° for 6.8% of the whole job (SDBS = 2.8% and SDBD = 2.0%). On average, the hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60° for 9.0% of the time during CT, compared to 3.7% during AT, resulting in a contrast between tasks of 0.35.Conclusions: Hairdressers may be at risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders due to a considerable occurrence of highly elevated arms, especially during CT. On the other hand, we do not find reasons to classify hairdressing as a job with too little variation. Posture variability between days within hairdressers was in the same order of magnitude as that between hairdressers, suggesting that ‘typical’ workdays do not exist. The exposure contrast between CT and AT for variables describing elevated arm postures indicates that for these variables a simple task-based approach for estimating job exposure could be successful.
  • Ahlgren, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Effects on physical performance and pain from three dynamic training programs for women with work-related trapezius myalgia
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 33:4, s. 162-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To compare training programs for women with trapezius myalgia regarding physical performance and pain, 102 women were randomized to strength, endurance, co-ordination and non-training groups. Before and after the intervention, static strength and dynamic muscular endurance in shoulder muscles were measured on a Cybex II dynamometer. Muscle activity in shoulder muscles was monitored via surface EMG. The signal amplitude ratio between the active and passive phase of repeated contractions indicated the ability to relax. Pain at present, pain in general and pain at worst were measured on visual analogue scales. After training, within group comparisons showed that the training groups rated less pain, and in the strength training group ratings of pain at worst differed from the non-training group. Using the non-training group as a reference, static strength increased in the strength and endurance training groups and muscular endurance in all training groups. The study indicates that regular exercises with strength, endurance or co-ordination training of neck/shoulder muscles might alleviate pain for women with work-related trapezius myalgia.
  • Ahlgren, Christina (författare)
  • Engagement in New Dietary Habits : Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. - : Springer. - 1070-5503 .- 1532-7558. ; 23:1, s. 84-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.
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