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Sökning: WFRF:(Burnet Neil)

  • Resultat 1-6 av 6
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1.
  • Conti, David, V, et al. (författare)
  • Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:1, s. 65-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across different populations highlights new risk loci and provides a genetic risk score that can stratify prostate cancer risk across ancestries.
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2.
  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
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  • Eekers, Danielle B. P., et al. (författare)
  • The EPTN consensus-based atlas for CT- and MR-based contouring in neuro-oncology
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 128:1, s. 37-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (Cr) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Methods: CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published. The draft atlas was delineated by a senior radiation oncologist, 2 residents in radiation oncology, and a senior neuro-radiologist incorporating relevant available literature. The proposed atlas was then critically reviewed and discussed by European radiation oncologists until consensus was reached. Results: The online atlas includes one CT-scan at two different window settings and one MR scan (3T) showing the OARs in axial, coronal and sagittal view. This manuscript presents the three-dimensional descriptions of the fifteen consensus OARs for neuro-oncology. Among these is a new OAR relevant for neuro-cognition, the posterior cerebellum (illustrated on 7T MR images). Conclusion: In order to decrease inter- and intra-observer variability in delineating OARs relevant for neuro-oncology and thus derive consistent dosimetric data, we propose this atlas to be used in photon and particle therapy. The atlas is available online at w.cancerdata.c and will be updated whenever required.
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6.
  • Sørensen, Brita S., et al. (författare)
  • Does uncertainty in variability in relative biological effectiveness affect patient treatment in proton therapy?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 163, s. 177-184
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical treatment with protons uses the concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to convert the absorbed dose into an RBE-weighted dose that equals the dose for radiotherapy with photons causing the same biological effect. Currently, in proton therapy a constant RBE of 1.1 is generically used. However, empirical data indicate that the RBE is not constant, but increases at the distal edge of the proton beam. This increase in RBE is of concern, as the clinical impact is still unresolved, and clinical studies demonstrating a clinical effect of an increased RBE are emerging. Within the European Particle Therapy Network (EPTN) work package 6 on radiobiology and RBE, a workshop was held in February 2020 in Manchester with one day of discussion dedicated to the impact of proton RBE in a clinical context. Current data on RBE effects, patient outcome and modelling from experimental as well as clinical studies were presented and discussed. Furthermore, representatives from European clinical proton therapy centres, who were involved in patient treatment, laid out their current clinical practice on how to consider the risk of a variable RBE in their centres. In line with the workshop, this work considers the actual impact of RBE issues on patient care in proton therapy by reviewing pre clinical data on the relation between linear energy transfer (LET) and RBE, current clinical data sets on RBE effects in patients, and applied clinical strategies to manage RBE uncertainties. A better understanding of the variability in RBE would allow development of proton treatments which are safer and more effective.
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  • Resultat 1-6 av 6

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