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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmér Ingvar)

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  • Geng, Qiuqing, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - Oxford University Press. - 0003-4878. ; 50:8, s. 851-862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfaces. Methods: Data were collected in four laboratories with a total of 20 males and 20 females performing a grand total of 1655 exposures. Each touched polished blocks of aluminium, stainless steel, nylon-6 and wood using the distal phalanx of the index finger with a contact force of 1.0, 2.9 and 9.8 N, at surface temperatures from +2 to -40 degrees C for a maximum duration of 120 s. Conditions were selected in order to elicit varying rates of skin cooling upon contact. Contact temperature (T-C) of the fingertip was measured over time using a T-type thermocouple. Results: A database obtained from the experiments was collated and analysed to characterize fingertip contact cooling across a range of materials and surface temperatures. The database was subsequently used to develop a predictive model to describe the contact duration required for skin contact temperature to reach the physiological criteria of onset of pain (15 degrees C), onset of numbness (7 degrees C) and onset of frostbite risk (0 degrees C). Conclusions: The data reflect the strong link between the risk of skin damage and the thermal properties of the material touched. For aluminium and steel, skin temperatures of 0 degrees C occurs within 2-6 s at surface temperatures of -15 degrees C. For non-metallic surfaces, onset of numbness occurs within 15-65 s of contact at -35 degrees C and onset of cold pain occurs within 5 s of contact at -20 degrees C. The predictive model subsequently developed was a non-linear exponential expression also reflecting the effects of material thermal properties and initial temperature. This model provides information for the protection of workers against the risk of cold injury by establishing the temperature limits of cold touchable surfaces for a broad range of materials, and it is now proposed as guidance values in a new international standard.
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  • Holmer, I, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of metabolic and respiratory demands in fire fighting activity with extreme workloads
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - Elsevier. - 0003-6870. ; 38:1, s. 45-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fire fighting work comprises work tasks requiring an energy yield at maximal or close to maximal levels of the individual. Due to the very nature of fire fighting more complex physiological variables are difficult to measure. We measured metabolic and respiratory responses in 15 male.. professional fire fighters during simulated work tasks on a test ground. Work time was on the average 22 min with individual components of work tasks lasting 2-4 min. The mean oxygen consumption for the whole exercise (22 min) was 2.75 +/- 0.291/min. The most demanding work task demanded an oxygen uptake of 3.55 +/- 0.271/min. Corresponding values for respiratory minute volumes were 82 +/- 14 and 102 +/- 141/min, respectively. Heart rates averaged 168 +/- 12 for the whole test and 179 +/- 13 beats/min for the heaviest work task. Two new classes for classification of intensive and exhausting, short term physical work are proposed for inclusion in ISO8996 and values for relevant parameters are proposed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Abeysekera, John, et al. (författare)
  • Some design recommendations to improve comfort in helmets : a case study from China
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 25:2, s. 145-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unless the basic user needs are satisfied in safety helmets, it is difficult to get workers to wear them habitually and for long periods. Hotness, weight and fitting problems are major wearability issues that require improvements. The enormous need for an optimally designed helmet in China prompted a case study on comfort aspects in helmets. The subjective impressions of the wearers of test helmets provided useful information for design changes to improve comfort. The heat transfer measurements through helmets indicated the need for ventilation openings to be provided on the shell of plastic helmets. Due to the advantage of low weight and good ventilation, it is recommended that cane helmets be further developed to improve protection, wearability and durability, and subsequently be produced in large scale
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