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  • Nylander, Ruta, et al. (författare)
  • Relation between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers and Brain Infarcts Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Elderly Population
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases. - 1052-3057. ; 24:2, s. 312-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Established cardiovascular risk markers, such as hypertension, are associated with increased risk of brain infarcts. The newer markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, C-reactive protein, and cystatin C may affect the risk of cardiovascular events and potentially, thereby, also stroke. We investigated the association between established and new risk markers for cardiovascular disease and brain infarcts detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 75.METHODS:Four hundred six randomly selected subjects from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study were examined with MRI of the brain at age 75. Blood samples, measurements, and dedicated questionnaires at age 70 were used for analysis of risk markers. A history of diseases had been obtained at age 70 and 75. MRI was evaluated regarding lacunar and cortical infarcts. Univariate associations between outcomes and risk markers were assessed with logistic regression models.RESULTS:One or more infarcts were seen in 23% of the subjects (20% had only lacunar infarcts, 1% had only cortical infarcts, and 2% had both). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 4.7) and obesity (OR 1.3; CI 1.0, 1.8) were significantly associated with increased risk of brain infarction. The newer risk markers were not significantly associated with the brain infarcts.CONCLUSIONS:The new markers were not associated with the predominantly lacunar infarcts in our 75-year-old population, why troponin I and NT-proBNP may be associated mainly with cardioembolic infarcts as shown recently.
  • Aare, Sudhakar, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of corticosteroids in the development of limb muscle weakness in a porcine intensive care unit model
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physiological Genomics. - 1094-8341. ; 45:8, s. 312-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe muscle wasting is a debilitating condition in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients, characterized by general muscle weakness and dysfunction, resulting in a prolonged mobilization, delayed weaning from the ventilator and a decreased quality of life post-ICU. The mechanisms underlying limbmuscle weakness in ICU patients are complex and involve the impact of primary disease, but also factors common to critically ill ICU patients such as sepsis, mechanical ventilation (MV), immobilization and systemic administration of corticosteroids (CS).  These factors may have additive negative effects on skeletal muscle structure and function, but their respective role alone remain unknown. The primary aim of this study was to examine how CS administration potentiates ventilator and immobilization-related limb muscle dysfunction at the gene level. Comparing biceps femoris gene expression in pigs exposed to MV and CS for five days with only MV pigs for the same duration of time showed a distinct deregulation of 186 genes using microarray. Surprisingly, the decreased force-generation capacity at the single muscle fiber reported in response to the addition of CS administration in mechanically ventilated and immobilized pigs was not associated with an additional up-regulation of proteolytic pathways. On the other hand, an altered expression of genes regulating kinase activity, cell cycle, transcription, channel regulation, oxidative stress response , cytoskeletal, sarcomeric and heat shock protein as well as protein synthesis at the translational level appear to play an additive deleterious role for the  limb muscle weakness in immobilized ICU patients. 
  • de Frias, Cindy M, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of COMT gene polymorphism on fMRI-assessed sustained and transient activity during a working memory task.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience. - Cambridge, Mass. : Published by the MIT Press with the Cognitive Neuroscience Institute. - 0898-929X. ; 22:7, s. 1614-1622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene--encoding an enzyme that is essential for the degradation of dopamine (DA) in prefrontal cortex (PFC)--contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (val/met) important for cognition. According to the tonic-phasic hypothesis, individuals carrying the low-enzyme-activity allele (met) are characterized by enhanced tonic DA activity in PFC, promoting sustained cognitive representations in working memory. Val carriers have reduced tonic but enhanced phasic dopaminergic activity in subcortical regions, enhancing cognitive flexibility. We tested the tonic-phasic DA hypothesis by dissociating sustained and transient brain activity during performance on a 2-back working memory test using mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were men recruited from a random sample of the population (the Betula study) and consisted of 11 met/met and 11 val/val carriers aged 50 to 65 years, matched on age, education, and cognitive performance. There were no differences in 2-back performance between genotype groups. Met carriers displayed a greater transient medial temporal lobe response in the updating phase of working memory, whereas val carriers showed a greater sustained PFC activation in the maintenance phase. These results support the tonic-phasic theory of DA function in elucidating the specific phenotypic influence of the COMT val(158)met polymorphism on different components of working memory.
  • Larsson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • En väg som till himla bär
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Kommunikation i tid och rum. - 91-89578-02-3 ; 82, s. 113-124
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Larsson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction. Session VII: Ritual and Symbolic Behavior
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Mesolithic on the move : papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Stockholm 2000. - 1842170899 ; s. 463-466
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Larsson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Långhögar i Sydsverige
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Monumentala gravformer i det äldsta bondesamhället. - 9189578031
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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