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1.
  • Diehl, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Protein Flexibility and Conformational Entropy in Ligand Design Targeting the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Galectin-3.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - American Chemical Society. - 1520-5126. ; 132, s. 14577-14589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rational drug design is predicated on knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein-ligand complex and the thermodynamics of ligand binding. Despite the fundamental importance of both enthalpy and entropy in driving ligand binding, the role of conformational entropy is rarely addressed in drug design. In this work, we have probed the conformational entropy and its relative contribution to the free energy of ligand binding to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3. Using a combination of NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and X-ray crystallography, we characterized the binding of three ligands with dissociation constants ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. (15)N and (2)H spin relaxation measurements showed that the protein backbone and side chains respond to ligand binding by increased conformational fluctuations, on average, that differ among the three ligand-bound states. Variability in the response to ligand binding is prominent in the hydrophobic core, where a distal cluster of methyl groups becomes more rigid, whereas methyl groups closer to the binding site become more flexible. The results reveal an intricate interplay between structure and conformational fluctuations in the different complexes that fine-tunes the affinity. The estimated change in conformational entropy is comparable in magnitude to the binding enthalpy, demonstrating that it contributes favorably and significantly to ligand binding. We speculate that the relatively weak inherent protein-carbohydrate interactions and limited hydrophobic effect associated with oligosaccharide binding might have exerted evolutionary pressure on carbohydrate-binding proteins to increase the affinity by means of conformational entropy.
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2.
  • Kadhirvel, Saraboji, et al. (författare)
  • The Carbohydrate-Binding Site in Galectin-3 Is Preorganized To Recognize a Sugarlike Framework of Oxygens: Ultra-High-Resolution Structures and Water Dynamics
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biochemistry. - American Chemical Society. - 0006-2960. ; 51:1, s. 296-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recognition of carbohydrates by proteins is a fundamental aspect of communication within and between living cells. Understanding the molecular basis of carbohydrate-protein interactions is a prerequisite for the rational design of synthetic ligands. Here we report the high- to ultrahigh-resolution crystal structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 (Gal3C) in the ligand-free state (1.08 angstrom at 100 K, 1.25 angstrom at 298 K) and in complex with lactose (0.86 angstrom) or glycerol (0.9 angstrom). These structures reveal striking similarities in the positions of water and carbohydrate oxygen atoms in all three states, indicating that the binding site of Gal3C is preorganized to coordinate oxygen atoms in an arrangement that is nearly optimal for the recognition of beta-galactosides. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation dispersion experiments and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that all water molecules in the lactose-binding site exchange with bulk water on a time scale of nanoseconds or shorter. Nevertheless, molecular dynamics simulations identify transient water binding at sites that agree well with those observed by crystallography, indicating that the energy landscape of the binding site is maintained in solution. All heavy atoms of glycerol are positioned like the corresponding atoms of lactose in the Gal3C complexes. However, binding of glycerol to Gal3C is insignificant in solution at room temperature, as monitored by NMR spectroscopy or isothermal titration calorimetry under conditions where lactose binding is readily detected. These observations make a case for protein cryo-crystallography as a valuable screening method in fragment-based drug discovery and further suggest that identification of water sites might inform inhibitor design.
3.
  • Lecerof, David, et al. (författare)
  • Metal binding to Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase and interaction between metal sites.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. - Springer. - 0949-8257. ; 8:4, s. 452-458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ferrochelatase, the terminal enzyme in heme biosynthesis, catalyses metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX. The location of the metal binding site with respect to the bound porphyrin substrate and the mode of metal binding are of central importance for understanding the mechanism of porphyrin metallation. In this work we demonstrate that Zn2+, which is commonly used as substrate in assays of the ferrochelatase reaction, and Cd2+, an inhibitor of the enzyme, bind to the invariant amino acids His183 and Glu264 and water molecules, all located within the porphyrin binding cleft. On the other hand, Mg2+, which has been shown to bind close to the surface at 7 Å from His183, was largely absent from its site. Activity measurements demonstrate that Mg2+ has a stimulatory effect on the enzyme, lowering KM for Zn2+ from 55 to 24 µM. Changing one of the Mg2+ binding residues, Glu272, to serine abolishes the effect of Mg2+. It is proposed that prior to metal insertion the metal may form a sitting-atop (SAT) complex with the invariant His-Glu couple and the porphyrin. Metal binding to the Mg2+ site may stimulate metal release from the protein ligands and its insertion into the porphyrin.
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4.
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5.
  • Ballmann, Joachim, et al. (författare)
  • Secondary bonding interactions in biomimetic 2Fe-2S clusters
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Inorganic Chemistry. - American Chemical Society. - 0020-1669. ; 47:5, s. 1586-1596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A series of synthetic 2Fe-2S complexes with terminal thiophenolate ligands and tethered ether or thioether moieties has been prepared and investigated in order to provide models for the potential interaction of additional donor atoms with the Fe atoms in biological 2Fe-2S clusters. X-ray crystal structures have been determined for six new complexes that feature appended Et (1(C)), OMe (1(O)), or SMe (1(S)) groups, or with a methylene group (2(C)), an ether-O (2(O)), or an thioether-S (2(S)) linking two aryl group. The latter two systems provide a constrained chelate arrangement that induces secondary bonding interactions with the ether-O and thioether-S, which is confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that also reveal significant spin density on those fifth donor atoms. Structural consequences of the secondary bonding interactions are analyzed in detail, and effects on the spectroscopic and electronic properties are probed by UV-vis, Mossbauer, and H-1 NMR spectroscopy, as well by SQUID measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The potential relevance of the findings for biological 2Fe-2S sites is considered.
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6.
  • Bruschi, Maurizio, et al. (författare)
  • A DFT investigation on structural and redox properties of a synthetic Fe6S6 assembly closely related to the FeFe-hydrogenases active site
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: COMPTES RENDUS CHIMIE. - ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER. - 1631-0748. ; 11:8, s. 834-841
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present contribution, a density functional theory (DFT) investigation is described regarding a recently synthesized Fe6S6 complex - see C. Tard, X. Liu, S.K. Ibrahim, M. Bruschi, L. De Gioia, S.C. Davies, X. Yang, L.-S. Wang, G. Sawers, C.J. Pickett, Nature 433 (2005) 610 - that is structurally and functionally related to the FeFe-hydrogenases active site (the so-called H-cluster, which includes a binuclear subsite directly involved in catalysis and an Fe4S4 cubane). The analysis of relative stabilities and atomic charges of different isomers evidenced that the structural and redox properties of the synthetic assembly are significantly different from those of the enzyme active site. A comparison between the hexanuclear cluster and simpler synthetic diiron models is also described; the results of such a comparison indicated that the cubane moiety can favour the stabilization of the cluster in a structure closely resembling the H-cluster geometry when the synthetic Fe6S6 complex is in its dianionic state. However, the opposite effect is observed when the synthetic cluster is in its monoanionic form.
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7.
  • Bruschi, Maurizio, et al. (författare)
  • Functionally Relevant Interplay between the Fe(4)S(4) Cluster and CN(-) Ligands in the Active Site of FeFe-Hydrogenases.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - American Chemical Society. - 1520-5126. ; 132:14, s. 4992-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • FeFe-hydrogenases are highly efficient H(2)-evolving metalloenzymes that include cyanides and carbonyls in the active site. The latter is an Fe(6)S(6) cluster (the so-called H-cluster) that can be subdivided into a binuclear portion carrying the CO and CN(-) groups and a tetranuclear subcluster. The fundamental role of cyanide ligands in increasing the basicity of the H-cluster has been highlighted previously. Here a more subtle but crucial role played by the two CN(-) ligands in the active site of FeFe-hydrogenases is disclosed. In fact, QM/MM calculations on all-atom models of the enzyme from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans show that the cyanide groups fine-tune the electronic and redox properties of the active site, affecting both the protonation regiochemistry and electron transfer between the two subclusters of the H-cluster. Despite the crucial role of cyanides in the protein active site, the currently available bioinspired electrocatalysts generally lack CN(-) groups in order to avoid competition between the latter and the catalytic metal centers for proton binding. In this respect, we show that a targeted inclusion of phosphine ligands in hexanuclear biomimetic clusters may restore the electronic and redox features of the wild-type H-cluster.
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8.
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9.
  • Chalupsky, Jakub, et al. (författare)
  • Multireference ab initio calculations on reaction intermediates of the multicopper oxidases
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. - AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 0020-1669. ; 45:26, s. 11051-11059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The multicopper oxidases (MCOs) couple the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water with four one-electron oxidations of various substrates. Extensive spectroscopic studies have identified several intermediates in the MCO catalytic cycle, but they have not been able to settle the structures of three of the intermediates, viz. the native intermediate (NI), the peroxy intermediate (PI), and the peroxy adduct (PA). The suggested structures have been further refined and characterized by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. In this paper, we try to establish a direct link between theory and experiment, by calculating spectroscopic parameters for these intermediates using multireference wave functions from the multistate CASPT2 and MRDDCI2 methods. Thereby, we have been able to reproduce low-spin ground states (S = 0 or S = 1/2) for all the MCO intermediates, as well as a low-lying (similar to 150 cm(-1)) doublet state and a doublet-quartet energy gap of similar to 780 cm(-1) for the NI. Moreover, we reproduce the zero-field splitting (similar to 70 cm(-1)) of the ground E-2 state in a D-3 symmetric hydroxy-bridged trinuclear Cu(II) model of the NI and obtain a quantitatively correct quartet-doublet splitting (164 cm(-1)) for a mu 3-oxo-bridged trinuclear Cu( II) cluster. All results support the suggestion that the NI has an O-2-atom in the center of the trinuclear cluster, whereas both the PI and PA have an O-2(2-) ion in the center of the cluster, in agreement with the QM/MM results and spectroscopic measurements.
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10.
  • Ciancetta, Antonella, et al. (författare)
  • A QM/MM study of the binding of RAPTA ligands to cathepsin B
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. - Springer. - 0920-654X. ; 25:8, s. 729-742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have carried out quantum mechanical (QM) and QM/MM (combined QM and molecular mechanics) calculations, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the binding of a series of six RAPTA (Ru(II)-arene-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-3.3.1.1 decane) complexes with different arene substituents to cathepsin B. The recently developed QM/MM-PBSA approach (QM/MM combined with Poisson-Boltzmann solvent-accessible surface area solvation) has been used to estimate binding affinities. The QM calculations reproduce the antitumour activities of the complexes with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.35-0.86 after a conformational search. The QM/MM-PBSA method gave a better correlation (r(2) = 0.59) when the protein was fixed to the crystal structure, but more reasonable ligand structures and absolute binding energies were obtained if the protein was allowed to relax, indicating that the ligands are strained when the protein is kept fixed. In addition, the best correlation (r(2) = 0.80) was obtained when only the QM energies were used, which suggests that the MM and continuum solvation energies are not accurate enough to predict the binding of a charged metal complex to a charged protein. Taking into account the protein flexibility by means of MD simulations slightly improves the correlation (r(2) = 0.91), but the absolute energies are still too large and the results are sensitive to the details in the calculations, illustrating that it is hard to obtain stable predictions when full flexible protein is included in the calculations.
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