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  • Abdelhady, Dalia, et al. (författare)
  • The Nile and the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam: Is There a Meeting Point between Nationalism and Hydrosolidarity?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1936-704X. ; 155:1, s. 73-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The soon-to-be completed Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), which will be the largest hydroelectric power plant and among the largest reservoirs in Africa, has highlighted the need for expanding traditional integrated water resources management to better include the cultural, social, and political complexities of large water infrastructure in development projects. The GERD will store a maximum of 74 billion cubic meters of water corresponding to approximately the average annual outflow of the Nile from the Aswan high dam. Undoubtedly, the GERD will be vital for energy production and a key factor for food production, economic development, and poverty reduction in Ethiopia and the Nile Basin. However, the GERD is also a political statement that in one stroke has re-written the hydropolitical map of the Nile Basin. The GERD has become a symbol of Ethiopian nationalism or “renaissance” (hidase in Amharic). A contrasting concept to nationalism is hydrosolidarity. This concept has been put forward to better stress equitable use of water in international water management challenges that would lead to sustainable socioeconomic development. We use the opposing notions of nationalism and hydrosolidarity at three different scales, everyday politics, state policies, and interstate and global politics to analyse some aspects of the new hydropolitical map of the Nile Basin. We argue that nationalism and national interests are not necessarily negative standpoints but that there may instead be a meeting point where regional and national interests join with hydrosolidarity principles. We believe that this meeting point can maximize not only the common good, but also the good from a national interest point of view. For this, it is important not increase collaboration instead of being locked in to the historical narrative of nationalistic culture and historical discourse. This would benefit and improve future sustainability.
  • Abed, Suhail N., et al. (författare)
  • Remediation of synthetic greywater in mesocosm—Scale floating treatment wetlands
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecological Engineering. - Elsevier. - 0925-8574. ; 102, s. 303-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two different chemical recipes comprising various pollutants were selected to create high (HC) and low (LC) levels of contaminated synthetic greywaters (SGW). Remediation in macrocosm–scale floating treatment wetlands (FTW) vegetated with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed) was investigated under natural weather conditions. The presence or absence of vegetation, short or long contact time of treatment, and low or high contamination loads are the main operational variables in the experimental set-up design of the FTW. The focus on removal processes (other than sedimentation) such as the role of macrophytes in phytoremediation was achieved by agitation of the treated outflow before sampling. To assess the impact of interactions between the experimental operational variables on removal performances of FTW, different approaches of statistical analysis were applied. The results revealed that total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity values dropped significantly (p < 0.05) in the presence of vegetation compared with those values from unvegetated wetlands. The presence of vegetation can significantly (p < 0.05) improve the biodegradation possibility of greywater by increasing the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and decreasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. In vegetated FTW, higher removal rates of COD can be achieved when treating HC-SGS compared to LC-SGW. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the removal of BOD was noted. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in BOD concentrations have been recorded with increasing contact time of treatment, while high removals of COD have been recorded. The presence of vegetation in wetlands affected significantly (p < 0.05) the decrease of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in outflow of both types of greywater. If limited sources of organic matter are available, vegetation has significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the nutrient balance with increasing nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and decreasing ortho-phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations in the outflow. Furthermore, significant increases (p < 0.05) in ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) and DO were observed with increasing contact time, while TSS, turbidity, and NO3-N concentrations significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In addition, yellow leaves and considerably lower growth rates were observed for the hydroponic plant rhizomes of P. australis, which might be an effect of light-induced fluorescein degradation due to the relatively open water surfaces of the wetlands.
  • Abed, Suhail N., et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of contaminated greywater using pelletised mine water sludge
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management. - Academic Press. - 0301-4797. ; 197, s. 10-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Precipitated sludge (ochre) obtained from a mine water treatment plant was considered as an adsorbent substance for pollutants, since ochre is relatively free from problematic levels of toxic elements, which could impair on the quality of water to be treated. Artificially created ochre pellets from mixing Portland cement with raw ochre sludge were utilised to remediate either high (HC) or low (LC) contaminated synthetic greywater (SGW) in mesocosm–scale stabilisation ponds at 2–day and 7–day contact times under real weather conditions in Salford. After a specific retention time, treated SGW was agitated before sampling to evaluate pollutant removal mechanisms (other than sedimentation) such as adsorption by ochre pellets, before replacing the treated water with new inflow SGW. The results showed that cement–ochre pellets have a high ability to adsorb ortho–phosphate–phosphorous (PO4–P) significantly (p < 0.05) by 70.7% and 56.0% at 7–day contact time for HC–SGW and LC–SGW, respectively. After the experiment, an analysis revealed that elements such as boron (B), cadmium (Cd), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) accumulated significantly (p < 0.05) within the ochre pellets. The notable accumulation of Cd within ochre pellets reflects the significant (p < 0.05) remediation of greywater during the first 35 and 20 successive times of treatment for HC–SGW at 2– and 7–day contact times, respectively. Cadmium was still adsorbed significantly (p < 0.05) during the treatment of LC–SGW. However, the calcium (Ca) content decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within ochre pellets treating both types of greywaters due to mobilisation. The corresponding increases of Ca in greywater were significant (p < 0.05).
  • Aboulila, Tarek Selim, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of inter-plant emitter distance and effects of irrigation water salinity on APRDI using Hydrus-2D
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Scientific Research. - 1450-216X. ; 58, s. 266-277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries. In this study, a two-dimensional water and solute transport model, Hydrus-2D, was used to assess the impact of inter-plant emitter distance (IPED) and irrigation water salinity on soil moisture and salinity distribution as well as on water balance components under alternate partial root-zone surface drip irrigation (APRDI) of tomato growing in loamy sand soil. Three IPED (20, 30, and 40 cm) and three irrigation water salinity levels (0, 1, and 2 dS/m) were used to execute different simulation scenarios. Simulation results indicated that the fluctuations in water content within the root zone were more pronounced in case of 20 cm IPED. The root water uptake increased as the IPED decreased. Using brackish irrigation water in APRDI caused significant augmentation in soil salinity in the top soil layer especially at the location of plant. The impact of irrigation water salinity on root water uptake increased as the IPED increased. As irrigation water salinity increased the root water uptake decreased. At plant location, soil salinity reached its highest values at the top soil layer in case of 30 and 40 cm IPED with brackish irrigation water. However, high soil salinity values were observed between the 40 and 65 cm depths in case of 20 cm IPED. Based on the results, it appears that APRDI with non-saline irrigation water is more effective with short IPED considering that approximately half of the root system was exposed to drying cycle. In addition, short IPED is recommended in APRDI when using brackish irrigation water especially for plants with shallow root system taking into account crop salinity tolerance.
  • Aboulila, Tarek Selim (författare)
  • Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in English Improving irrigation practices and optimal exploitation of available water resources are vital issues facing water scarcity and similar problems in arid and semiarid countries (e.g., Egypt and Tunisia). In these countries, the use of saline and low quality irrigation water (i.e., brackish irrigation water) is often associated by soil salinization risk and soil degradation due to mismanagement and improper irrigation methods. In the present study, field, laboratory, and numerical experiments were conducted. Field experiments were carried out in Tunisia to investigate soil water and salinity distribution under different treatments of drip irrigation (i.e., surface drip irrigation without and with plastic mulch and subsurface drip irrigation surface) with two irrigation regimes (daily and bi-weekly) in a sandy loam soil. In addition, to explore the mobility of different tracers (i.e., dye and bromide) under surface drip irrigation in loamy sand soil as an indicator for the movement of fertilizers and organic pollutants through the field soil. Numerical simulations, on the other hand, were implemented to investigate the effect of geometric design aspects, irrigation regime and amount, and salinity of irrigation water on soil water and salinity distribution as well as irrigation efficiency for different soil types in the El-Salam Canal project region, Egypt under different drip irrigation techniques. These techniques were surface drip irrigation (DI), subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), alternate partial root-zone surface drip irrigation (APRDI), and alternate partial root-zone subsurface drip irrigation (APRSDI). Laboratory experiments were conducted for collected soil samples to provide required data for simulation implementation and analysis. Field results showed that mulching treatment with daily irrigation regime reduces groundwater contamination risk and improves soil water status within the soil domain in sandy loam soil over other drip irrigation treatments and regimes. In addition, the bromide flow faster as compared to dye. Therefore, fertilizers can move deeper than organic pollutants under surface drip irrigation. On the other hand, numerical simulations for El-Salam Canal cultivated land showed that under DI soil hydraulic properties should be considered during designing the drip system. Simulation results for SDI showed that shallow emitter depth is recommended in regions with shallow groundwater to reduce groundwater contamination risk and fertilizer leaching. In addition, it is preferable to control the wetted volume of any soil type by regulating the amount of irrigation water according to soil hydraulic properties. Simulation results also demonstrated that short inter-plant emitter distances (IPED) is appropriate to sustain a considerable amount of soil moisture in the zone of maximum root density under APRDI and APRSDI. Thereby, higher root water uptake rates were recorded with short IPED. Thus short IPED is preferable especially for root system with limited lateral extension. Salinity results showed that APRSDI is more suitable with non-saline irrigation water, especially for shallow rooted plants. However, short IPED and shallow emitter depth are recommended for reducing soil salinity below the plant trunk in case of using brackish irrigation water. Based on the above, HYDRUS-2D/3D can be used as a fast and cost effective assessment tool for water flow and salt movement under different treatments and techniques of drip irrigation.
  • Aboulila, Tarek Selim, et al. (författare)
  • Field experiment and numerical simulation of point source irrigation with multiple tracers.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Water and Environmental Systems - IASKS. - International Association for Sharing Knowledge and Sustainability. - 1923-7545.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • In this study, three plots in sandy soil in northern Tunisia were irrigated by a single irrigation dripper with a solution containing dye and bromide for three successive hours. Fifteen hours after ceasing of infiltration, horizontal 5 cm trenches were dug. Dye pattern, bromide concentration, and water content were recorded. Indication of preferential flow due to water repellency of initial dry soil was found during the early stages of infiltration. However no deep preferential flow occurred. This enables the use of drip irrigation to improve the sustainability of irrigation systems. Numerical simulation using Hydrus-2D was conducted for the field experiment. It was found that in both field experiments and numerical simulation the mobility of the bromide is different from the mobility of dye; the dye was retarded approximately twice by volume compared to bromide. The simulation results support the use of Hydrus-2D as a roughly, rapid and labor saving tool for investigation tracers’ mobility in sandy soil under point source irrigation.
  • Aboulila, Tarek Selim, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of geometric design of alternate partial root-zone subsurface drip irrigation (APRSDI) with brackish water on soil moisture and salinity distribution
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Agricultural Water Management. - Elsevier. - 1873-2283. ; 103, s. 182-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined In alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) a significant amount of irrigation water can be saved without considerable yield reduction. In this paper, Hydrus-2D/3D was used to investigate the impact of geometric design of alternate partial root-zone subsurface drip irrigation (APRSDI) with brackish water for growing tomato on soil moisture and salinity distribution. Three inter-plant emitter distances (IPED; 20, 30, and 40 cm), two emitter depths (10 and 20 cm), and three irrigation water salinity levels (0, 1, and 2 dS m-1) were used to implement the proposed simulation scenarios in loamy sand soil during a 40-day simulation period. The simulation results showed that higher soil moisture content was found beneath the plant trunk in case of 20 cm (short IPED) and near the domain border in case of 30 and 40 cm IPED. Short IPED guarantees more water in the maximum root density zone. A deeper wetting front occurred for deep emitter depth, while the wetting front reached the soil surface for shallow emitter depth. Salinity results revealed that as irrigation water salinity increased, the salinity in the top soil increased. In addition, the salinity at the soil surface increased as IPED and emitter depth increased. Higher root water uptake rates were recorded in the case of 20 cm IPED while the emitter depth did not show any considerable effect on root water uptake rates. Moreover, the applied irrigation water was fully consumed by the plant in case of short IPED. Emitter depth and salinity of irrigation water had negligible effect on amount of irrigation water extracted by plant roots and percolated amount below the bottom boundary of the flow domain. Overall, short IPED is recommended in APRSDI with or without brackish irrigation water regardless of the emitter depth.
  • Aboulila, Tarek Selim, et al. (författare)
  • Numerical evaluation of subsurface trickle irrigation with brackish water
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Irrigation Science. - Springer. - 0342-7188. ; 31:5, s. 1125-1137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • In this study, an assessment for a proposed irrigation system in the El-Salam Canal cultivated land, Egypt, was conducted. A numerical model (HYDRUS-2D/3D) was applied to investigate the effect of irrigation amount, frequency, and emitter depth on the wetted soil volume, soil salinity levels, and deep percolation under subsurface trickle irrigation (SDI) of tomato growing with brackish irrigation water in three different soil types. The simulations indicated that lower irrigation frequency increased the wetted soil volume without significant increase in water percolate below the plant roots. Deep percolation decreased as the amount of irrigation water and emitter depth decreased. With the same amount of irrigation water, the volume of leached soil was larger at lower irrigation frequency. The salinity of irrigation water under SDI with shallow emitter depth did not show any significant effect on increasing the soil salinity above tomato crop salt tolerance. Based on the results, it appears that the use of SDI with brackish irrigation water is an effective method for growing tomato crop in El-Salam Canal cultivated land especially with shallow emitter depth.
  • Aboulila, Tarek Selim, et al. (författare)
  • Simulation of soil water and salinity distribution under surface drip irrigation
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Irrigation and Drainage. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1531-0361. ; 62:3, s. 352-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Higher crop production and higher water use efficiency are usually achieved simultaneously with surface drip irrigation compared to other surface irrigation methods. With increasing competition for fresh water nowadays, there is also a need for greater use of brackish water in agriculture. Effects of soil hydraulic properties, initial soil moisture content ( ), and the irrigation regime on soil water and salinity distribution under surface drip irrigation (DI) with brackish irrigation water for growing tomato in saline soil were investigated using HYDRUS-2D/3D model. Simulation scenarios were conducted including three soil types (sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam), two irrigation regimes (daily and on alternate-day irrigation), and two values. Simulation results revealed that the effect of the irrigation regime on the wetting patterns differed according to the soil’s hydraulic properties while the effect of the initial soil moisture content vanished after a few days. Alternate-day regime is suitable for fine-texture soil. Soil salinity patterns showed that the irrigation regime and value did not show any significant effect on soil salinity distribution under drip irrigation with brackish water. Higher soil salinity values occurred along the soil surface by the end of the simulation period. These higher values were closer to the emitter in sand as compared to loamy sand and sandy loam. Water balance calculations showed that as the initial soil moisture content increased, the free drainage component increased. However, the irrigation regime and initial soil moisture content value did not affect the evaporation rate and root water uptake rate.
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