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1.
  • Aleksejeva, Olga (författare)
  • Blue copper proteins as bioelements for bioelectronic devices
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is focused on bioelements for biological electric power sources, specifically, on blue copper proteins with and without an intrinsic biocatalytic activity, i.e. ability to reduce oxygen directly to water. These proteins, viz. different laccases, ceruloplasmin, and rusticyanin, were characterised in detail and employed for the construction of both self-charging and conventional biosupercapacitors. First, similarities and particularities of oxygen electroreduction vs. bioelectroreduction were reviewed. Moreover, being a promising candidate for the construction of autotolerant implantable biocathodes, the electrochemistry of human ceruloplasmin was revisited. For the first time, a clear bioelectrocatalytic reduction of oxygen on ceruloplasmin modified electrodes was shown. Second, computational design combined with directed evolution resulted in a high redox potential mutated laccase, GreeDo, with increased redox potential of the T1 site, increased activity towards high redox potential mediators, as well as enhanced stability. Third, GreeDo was electrochemically characterised in detail. The mutant exhibited higher open circuit potential values and onset potentials for oxygen bioelectroreduction compared to the parental laccase, OB-1. Moreover, the operational stability of GreeDo modified graphite electrodes was found to be more than 2 h in a decidedly acidic electrolyte, in agreement with the extended operational and storage stabilities of the enzyme in acidic solutions. Fourth, multi-cell single-electrolyte glucose/ oxygen biodevices with adjustable open-circuit and operating voltages, which are independent on the difference in equilibrium redox potentials of the two redox couples, gluconolactone/glucose and oxygen/water, viz. 1.18 V, but dependent on the number of half-cells in the biodevice construction, were designed and tested. The biodevices were made from tubular graphite electrodes with electropolymerised poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified with Trametes hirsuta laccase and Neurospora crassa cellobiose dehydrogenase as the cathodic and anodic biocatalysts, respectively. Due to the interplay between faradaic and non-faradaic electrochemical processes, as well as between ionic and electronic conductivities, the open-circuit voltage of the self-charged biodevice is extraordinarily high, reaching 3 V, when seven biosupercapacitors operating in a common electrolyte were connected in series. Moreover, glucose/oxygen biodevices could be externally discharged at an operating voltage exceeding the maximal limiting open-circuit value of 1.24 V for the complete glucose oxidation. Last but not least, a conventional biosupercapacitor, i.e. a biodevice lacking self-charging ability, was composed of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans rusticyanin modified gold electrodes. The complete biodevices as well as separate electrodes were thoroughly characterised electrochemically. The symmetrical biosupercapacitor based on two identical gold electrodes modified with rusticyanin is able to capacitively store electricity and deliver electric power, accumulated mostly in the form of biopseudocapacitance, when charged and discharged externally.
2.
  • Bergenfeldt Fabri, Anna (författare)
  • Hälsoarbete i rörelse : ett aktionsforskningsprojekt inom etableringsreformens samhälls- och hälsoinformation
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to contribute with knowledge about the conditions of a group of social and Health Communicators (HC) for changing the form of health information for newly arrived refugees. Focus is 011 how the HC's awamess evolves during their efforts to introduce physical activity as a health promotion strategy. The study also aims at making visible whether the action research process leads to any changes in the longer perspective. By applying Kemmis and Grootenboers' Theory of Practice Architectures the analysis takes its starting point in practice. The theory is based on the assurntion that a practice is constituted by different conditions or arrangements that shape the conversations, actions and activities taking place within a specific practice. The theory includes useful concepts here used as tools to describe and analyse the social context under study. To understand the working conditions for public administrators and the HCs in particulary, Lipsky's concept street-level bureaucrats is used. Using a critical action research approach, the study is based on empirical material gathered via work group meetings, focus group discussions, study visits and participation in the field. The tools employed comprise participatory observations, sound recording and documentation in the form of field notes and logg book writing. This study shows that fixed practice architectures govern the civic and heallh information practice. Initially this makes it difficult for the HCs to see how physical activity could be part of the content. The result shows that the arrangements shaping the practice within the project, differ from those that form the workday practice. A joint meeting practice was set up during the project and worked as a communicative space for collegial dialog and the ex.change of experiences. In accordance with action research methods, the HCs' had the authority over the working process which in tum led to forming and testing of new activities with participants from the target group. This paved the way for a more pronounced interest in health issues and physical activities among the newly arrived. Two years after the conclusion of the action research project, a follow-up study was conducted. The outcome illustrates that the current practice architecture constrains the implementation of physical activity as a part of the organisation. The only remains of the changes accomplished during the project, that can be trace, d are the indiviual experiences adopted by the communicators that come to the fore in their sayings The former action research project has raised the group's awareness of what is required to motivate participants to take responsibility for their own !earing , in this case regarding physical activity. Despite the somewhat daunting picture, it is still possible to discern that the action research practice contributed by building up local knowledge and awareness of what is necessary for achieving sustainable results. This is an area over which the Communicatiors currently lack any real influence.
3.
  • Berlin Hallrup, Leena (författare)
  • Experiences of everyday life and participation for people with intellectual disabilities : from four perspectives
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • People with intellectual disabilities are dependent in many ways on the support of others if they are to have access to social life, services and support in society. In order to participate in various activities, they need intellectual and social support. This means that participation for them, depends in several ways on other people´s willingness to facilitate and promote participation. This imposes high demands on those professionals providing formal support for them. Hence, the overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe from four perspectives the experiences of everyday life and participation for people with intellectual disabilities. The thesis contains four qualitatively oriented studies, which have evolved over time. Studies I-II, including participant observations and interviews, and were conducted in group homes with staff and adults with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, it emerged that adults with intellectual disabilities experienced different limitations in their everyday life, which indicates a lack of opportunity for participation (Study II). From the findings of these two studies, it became clear that participation is a central focus and that leadership is of particular significance for how participation is implemented; therefore, interviews were conducted with service managers (Study III). Lastly, within the framework of this thesis, the aim was directed at focus groups with significant others as the fourth perspective to provide a broad framing of what participation can mean for people with intellectual disabilities. Despite the fact that the disability policy has contributed to improvements for this target group, there are currently extensive shortcomings. This study has revealed deficiencies such as the lack of working methods to help staff facilitate participation (Study I); the lack of care worker´ continuity and the existence of many routines and rules in the group homes (Study II); more overarchingly, the financial situation was not adequate to promote participation (Studies III and IV). Consequently, there were also strengths and opportunities for a good everyday life and for participation. All four perspectives are important as, together, they contribute with a deeper understanding of what participation is and is not, in relation to people with ID. From the findings presented in this thesis, it can be said that participation is double-edged as the four studies highlight both the absence and presence of participation.
4.
  • Cowen Forssell, Rebecka (författare)
  • Cyberbullying : transformation of working life and its boundaries
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige liksom många andra länder genomgår en digitaliseringsprocess som påverkar hur vi tar oss an och förhåller oss till arbete. I arbetslivets digitalisering ingår även psykosociala aspekter som uppstår som en följd av ökad digital kommunikation. Cybermobbning, eller nätmobbning som det ofta refereras till i en svensk kontext, syftar på mobbning via digitala kanaler och inkluderar aggressiva eller negativa beteenden på e-post, SMS, blogg eller sociala nätverkssajter som Facebook. Medan det har bedrivits forskning om cybermobbning bland barn och ungdomar de senaste två decennierna befinner sig forskningen om cybermobbning bland vuxna i arbetslivet fortfarande i ett utforskande skede. Den här avhandlingen syftar till att utveckla ny kunskap om hur cybermobbning i arbetslivet kan förstås och förklaras. För att uppnå syftet undersöks hur cybermobbning i arbetslivet uttrycks och vilka individuella, sociala och organisatoriska implikationer mobbning medför när det sker i digitala rum. Avhandlingen har en interdisciplinär ansats och integrerar teoretiska ansatser från urbana studier, organisationspsykologi samt sociologi. Vidare tillämpas ‘mixed methods research design’ i syfte att generera skilda och komplementära perspektiv på samma fenomen. Föreliggande sammanläggningsavhandling består av tre artiklar, varav två är publicerade i vetenskapliga tidskrifter och en är under granskning för publicering. Den övergripande frågeställningen är formulerad enligt följande: På vilket sätt förändras mobbning i arbetslivet när den sker genom social interaktion i digitala rum? Tillsammans med den teoretiska diskussion som förs i kappan besvaras frågeställningen genom tre empiriska datakällor – en pilotstudie, en enkätstudie och en intervjustudie. Varje artikel i avhandlingen har sina specifika frågeställningar eller hypoteser, men den övergripande frågeställningen för avhandlingen besvaras genom att använda mixed methods. Tre övergripande teman identifieras i avhandlingen: nya maktdynamiker i cybermobbning, media-specifika uttryck i cybermobbning och konceptuella utmaningar i att studera cybermobbning. Nya maktdynamiker i cybermobbning beskriver hur maktrelationer i cybermobbning skiljer sig till viss del från maktrelationer i mobbning ansikte-mot-ansikte. Temat är baserat på resultatet som visar att fler personer i arbetsledande positioner än ickearbetsledande positioner är utsatta för cybermobbning. Detta antyder att digital kommunikation påverkar maktdynamiker och möjliggör för personer i formellt lägre positioner att mobba en chef. Ytterligare en aspekt som lyfts fram är att när digital kommunikation bidrar till en uppluckring av gränser i arbetslivet kan personer utanför organisationen såsom studenter, elever, kunder eller medborgare bli förövare av arbetsrelaterad cybermobbning. Det andra temat media-specifika uttryck i cybermobbning utgår ifrån att cybermobbning uttrycks olika i e-post jämfört med Facebook och bloggar och att cybermobbning därför bör förstås i förhållande till den kontext som den specifika kommunikationskanalen skapar. Temat är utvecklat mot bakgrund av resultatet som visar en övervikt av passiv och exkluderande mobbning via e-post och exempel på särskilt aggressiv och direkt uttryckt mobbning på Facebook och blogg. Vilka som är åskådare och kommunikationskanalens förankring i arbetsorganisationen förefaller påverka hur cybermobbning uttrycks. Det tredje temat, konceptuella utmaningar i att studera cybermobbning, framhåller en rumslig sammankoppling mellan cybermobbning och mobbning ansikte-mot-ansikte. Här diskuteras vilken betydelse överlappning mellan cybermobbning och mobbning ansikte-mot-ansikte har för tolkning av fenomenets omfattning. Vidare diskuteras några svårigheter med att studera cybermobbning utifrån traditionella operationaliseringar av mobbning.
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7.
  • Hallmer, Fredrik (författare)
  • Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw : occurence, risk factors, pathogenesis & treatment
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The antiresorptive drugs bisphosphonates and denosumab are widely used to preserve bone strength by inhibiting osteoclast mediated bone resorption. High dose intravenous bisphosphonates and high dose denosumab are mainly used to treat skeletal related events in patients with metastatic bone disease such as metastatic breast cancer and metastatic prostate cancer or in patients with multiple myeloma. In patients with osteoporosis, oral bisphosphonates are mostly used. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious side effect associated both with bisphosphonates and denosumab treatment. The first report on MRONJ was published in 2003. At first, the condition was believed to be a new disease, but it was later proved to be the same disease, which existed more than 100 years ago in match factory workers, and phosphate miners, in whom the disease was recognized as phossy jaw. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the occurrence, risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment of MRONJ. Study I describes prevalence, trigger factors and treatment outcomes of MRONJ retrospectively between the years 2003-2010 in Region Skåne. During this time, 55 patients had been diagnosed with MRONJ. Of these patients, 31 patients with a malignant disease were treated with high dose intravenous bisphosphonates and 24 patients with osteoporosis were treated with oral bisphosphonates. The prevalence of MRONJ was estimated to be 0.024% for patient on oral bisphosphonates and 2.8% for patients on high dose intravenous bisphosphonates. Tooth extraction was the most common trigger factor. After treatment of MRONJ, healing occurred more frequently in patients with osteoporosis treated with oral bisphosphonates than in patients with a malignant disease treated with high dose intravenous bisphosphonates. Study II investigated the association between microflora and MRONJ by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing technique for the detection of bacteria in necrotic bone lesions. Included were 18 consecutive patients with MRONJ, ten with osteoporosis and eight with metastatic disease. Bone biopsies were retrieved with two separate 3 mm sterile trepan burrs from the centre of the necrotic bone and from visible healthy bone. The necrotic bone lesions contained mainly anaerobic bacteria, representative for periodontal microflora, suggesting that a periodontal infection in combination with antiresorptive treatment could initiate the osteonecrosis. Study III is a prospective cohort study where the prevalence and initiating factors of MRONJ and the outcome of surgical therapy were analysed. All new cases of MRONJ between 2012 and 2015 in Region Skåne were included. Fifty-five patients with MRONJ were identified. The prevalence of MRONJ for patients on oral bisphosphonates was 0.043%, on high dose intravenous bisphosphonates 1.03% and on high dose denosumab 3.64%. Periodontal disease preceded development of MRONJ in 41 patients. Fifty patients were treated surgically and followed up for at least 2 months. Lesions progressed to remission or healing in 80.0% of patients treated with sequestrectomy and in 92.5% of patients treated with block resection. In study IV, the aim was to prospectively determine the incidence and define risk factors for MRONJ in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with zoledronic acid and/or denosumab. Breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 in the region of Skåne with one or several bone metastases and treated with zoledronic acid or denosumab were included. Systemic risk factors (age, zoledronic acid or denosumab use, treatment time, chemo-therapy or corticosteroid use, diabetes and smoking habits) were recorded. Sixteen patients of 242 (6.6%) developed MRONJ during the 77 months study period (from 1st of January 2012 to 31st of May 2018). The incidence of MRONJ in patients treated with high dose zoledronic acid was 4.1%, and for patients with high dose denosumab 13.6%. The risk of developing MRONJ in patients on denosumab was significantly higher compared to patients treated with zoledronic acid. Corticosteroid use was associated with a significant decreased risk of MRONJ and diabetes was associated with a significantly increased risk of MRONJ. Chemotherapy or smoking was not associated with a significant increased risk of MRONJ. In conclusion, the incidence of MRONJ is more than three times higher in breast cancer patients treated with denosumab compared to breast cancer patients treated with zoledronic acid. The prevalence in patients with osteoporosis on oral bisphosphonates is low, < 0.05%. Corticosteroid use decreases the risk of developing MRONJ whilst diabetes increases the risk. The most common local risk factor is a periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria play a central role in the pathogenesis and development of MRONJ. The treatment outcome of MRONJ demonstrates healing in most patients treated surgically.
8.
  • Hansen, Christina (författare)
  • Solidarity in Diversity : Activism as a Pathway of Migrant Emplacement in Malmö
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Written at the intersection of migration studies, urban studies, and research on activism, this thesis contributes to the exploration of solidarities born on the ground in an urban context marked by immigration and economic restructuring. Based on ethnographic material collected 2013­–2016 in Malmö, Sweden, it examines alliances and friendships generated across social, cultural, ethnic, and legal divides through a particular political practice—activism as carried out by the extra-parliamentarian left. A decisive aspect is the particularity of Malmö, a city with a high density and diversity of activist groups, and Möllevången, the neighbourhood where their actions are concentrated. Möllevången is conceptualised in this thesis as an incubator for resistance to the dispossessing effects of neoliberal economic restructuring and urban gentrification. Special attention is devoted to activist groups that, at the time of fieldwork, affected the most people through their large mobilisations and solidarity-based work. While not negating differences among activists or between activists and racialised migrants in precarious legal conditions, the thesis highlights their shared experiences of co-creating political spaces and interests—commoning. This kind of embodied solidarity requires activists to experiment with non-hierarchical and non-normative ways of structuring social relations, a process filled with challenges, ambivalences, and conflicts. The thesis shows how activists cope with challenges and what they perceive as achievements. Furthermore, it shows that—despite the ever-increasing anti-immigrant rhetoric, restrictive migration policies, and neoliberalisation of the commons—solidarity and commoning contribute to pathways of migrant emplacement: re-establishing life in a particular locality, building networks, making friends, and developing a feeling of belonging to a new place. Not only does the activists’ commitment to radical equality and mutual aid create certain pathways for emplacement in the city, it also enables the political socialisation of some migrants and paves the way for a new generation of migrant activists in Malmö.
9.
  • Hellborg, Anna Maria (författare)
  • "Godispengar" eller "överdådig lyx" - om elitidrott, ekonomi och jämställdhet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to problematize and analyze the conception and construction of elite athletes’ economical terms through a feministic lens. I will specifically try to investigate and illustrate how women and men who want to invest and try out for elite sports, are constructed as economical actors, how economical prerequisites to practice their sport is depicted and if, and in what way, the professionalization of the sport is gender equal. The four sports that are examined in this study are curling, football, golf and equestrian. The study contributes to the illustration of sport management issues from a feministic, gender and equality perspective. I have chosen multiple theories that I believe explain the different parts of my material in relation to feminism, gender equality and gender theories. The concepts used are the connection between material and cultural inequality (Fraser and Ridgeway), dominance and power structures (Young and Halldenius), the connection between the public and the private (Okin) and the gender contract (Hirdman). Mainly two types of material are used. An analysis of the sport associations’ official magazines and interviews with different organizational leaders within the associations. This dissertation shows that the issues regarding financial conditions for elite athletes are depicted differently in the different sports. There are diverse challenges for the sports and their associations in the work towards gender equality. The different conditions are affected by size, status, connections to the market and dependence of funds. Several problematic issues are identified such as distribution of resources by the associations, the distribution by sponsors, the distribution by the SOK, prize money and family life. The struggle for a gender equal distribution of resources in elite sports are ongoing. The magazines depict women as receiving less money than men in their sports. A common argument for this distribution is the greater interest in men’s sports, which refers to that men’s sports generate more money. Women’s sport is economically marginalized. An excessive redistribution of assets and a restructuring of the control over resources are necessary aspects to rectify gender inequality. Professional sports as they appear today, partly controlled by the market, are not gender equal. It appears to be a great gap between gender equality and the market logic. As it appears from this study, a key seems to be adding value to women’s sports on all levels, from associations to spectators. The relationship between the Swedish state and the sports movement (RF) is defined by an implicit contract. The state provides funds to RF and in turn, RF has a responsibility to make sure sport is equal for all. Since the implicit contract also means that the state does not interfere with how the sport confederation distribute the funds this means that the distribution of resources benefits men’s elite sports because it is considered more worthy by the sport organizations. RF do not fulfill their part of the contract and the state approves the inequality by not making demands. The implicit contract becomes gender impregnated.
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10.
  • Ingrell, Joakim (författare)
  • What does it take to be successful here? A longitudinal study of achievement motivation in youth sport
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The focal aim of this dissertation project centers on understanding the importance of some of the underlying factors responsible for the socialization of achievement motivation in youth sport and its affective outcomes. Furthermore, this dissertation project focuses on the specializing stage of development, more specifically, student-athletes (N = 78) attending a compulsory school with a sports profile. This dissertation project was guided by the theoretical frameworks provided by achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1984, 1989), implicit theories of ability (Dweck, 2000), Ames’ (1992a, 1992b) motivational climate, Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect (Marsh, 1984; Marsh & Parker, 1984) athletic burnout (Raedeke & Smith, 2001), and gender as a social institution (Lorber, 1994). In the first study, the aim was to analyze and problematize athletic ability longitudinally and with a gender perspective as it is perceived, discussed, and valued by student-athletes. A mixed method approach was used in this study consisting of quantitative analysis (multilevel modeling) of a three-year, six-wave data collection (N = 78). Furthermore, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 of the student-athletes. The two main results of this study were that entity beliefs increased, and incremental beliefs decreased during the three-year period, and that gender added a further understanding of the beliefs of student-athletes regarding athletic ability. The second study aimed to examine achievement goals in youth sport longitudinally and the within-person effects of perceived motivational climates by coaches, peers, and parents on achievement goal orientations. The student-athletes (N = 78) completed a multi-section questionnaire, six times over a three-year period, assessing the study variables and the multilevel modeling analysis revealed that both the task orientation and the ego orientation decreased for this age group over the threeyear period. Furthermore, the perceived task involving peer climate was significantly and positively related to task orientation, and perceived ego-involving coaching climate was significantly and positively related to ego orientation. In the third study, the aim was to examine the developmental trajectories of student-athlete burnout perceptions and the within-person relationship between achievement goals and burnout perceptions. The participants (N = 78), time frame, and measurement points were the same in this study, as in studies I and II. The results from the multilevel growth models revealed that burnout perceptions increased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, task orientation was significantly and negatively related to a reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. The findings from this dissertation project highlight some of the complexity of achievement motivation in youth sport; the relationships between this type of motivation and the context, in this case, a school with a sports profile, and organized sports, and significant others such as coaches, peers, and parents. Furthermore, the results from this dissertation project underline the advantage of considering a specific developmental stage when studying achievement motivation in youth sport longitudinally.
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