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1.
  • Bergenfeldt Fabri, Anna (författare)
  • Hälsoarbete i rörelse : ett aktionsforskningsprojekt inom etableringsreformens samhälls- och hälsoinformation
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to contribute with knowledge about the conditions of a group of social and Health Communicators (HC) for changing the form of health information for newly arrived refugees. Focus is 011 how the HC's awamess evolves during their efforts to introduce physical activity as a health promotion strategy. The study also aims at making visible whether the action research process leads to any changes in the longer perspective. By applying Kemmis and Grootenboers' Theory of Practice Architectures the analysis takes its starting point in practice. The theory is based on the assurntion that a practice is constituted by different conditions or arrangements that shape the conversations, actions and activities taking place within a specific practice. The theory includes useful concepts here used as tools to describe and analyse the social context under study. To understand the working conditions for public administrators and the HCs in particulary, Lipsky's concept street-level bureaucrats is used. Using a critical action research approach, the study is based on empirical material gathered via work group meetings, focus group discussions, study visits and participation in the field. The tools employed comprise participatory observations, sound recording and documentation in the form of field notes and logg book writing. This study shows that fixed practice architectures govern the civic and heallh information practice. Initially this makes it difficult for the HCs to see how physical activity could be part of the content. The result shows that the arrangements shaping the practice within the project, differ from those that form the workday practice. A joint meeting practice was set up during the project and worked as a communicative space for collegial dialog and the ex.change of experiences. In accordance with action research methods, the HCs' had the authority over the working process which in tum led to forming and testing of new activities with participants from the target group. This paved the way for a more pronounced interest in health issues and physical activities among the newly arrived. Two years after the conclusion of the action research project, a follow-up study was conducted. The outcome illustrates that the current practice architecture constrains the implementation of physical activity as a part of the organisation. The only remains of the changes accomplished during the project, that can be trace, d are the indiviual experiences adopted by the communicators that come to the fore in their sayings The former action research project has raised the group's awareness of what is required to motivate participants to take responsibility for their own !earing , in this case regarding physical activity. Despite the somewhat daunting picture, it is still possible to discern that the action research practice contributed by building up local knowledge and awareness of what is necessary for achieving sustainable results. This is an area over which the Communicatiors currently lack any real influence.
2.
  • Berlin Hallrup, Leena (författare)
  • Experiences of everyday life and participation for people with intellectual disabilities : from four perspectives
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • People with intellectual disabilities are dependent in many ways on the support of others if they are to have access to social life, services and support in society. In order to participate in various activities, they need intellectual and social support. This means that participation for them, depends in several ways on other people´s willingness to facilitate and promote participation. This imposes high demands on those professionals providing formal support for them. Hence, the overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe from four perspectives the experiences of everyday life and participation for people with intellectual disabilities. The thesis contains four qualitatively oriented studies, which have evolved over time. Studies I-II, including participant observations and interviews, and were conducted in group homes with staff and adults with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, it emerged that adults with intellectual disabilities experienced different limitations in their everyday life, which indicates a lack of opportunity for participation (Study II). From the findings of these two studies, it became clear that participation is a central focus and that leadership is of particular significance for how participation is implemented; therefore, interviews were conducted with service managers (Study III). Lastly, within the framework of this thesis, the aim was directed at focus groups with significant others as the fourth perspective to provide a broad framing of what participation can mean for people with intellectual disabilities. Despite the fact that the disability policy has contributed to improvements for this target group, there are currently extensive shortcomings. This study has revealed deficiencies such as the lack of working methods to help staff facilitate participation (Study I); the lack of care worker´ continuity and the existence of many routines and rules in the group homes (Study II); more overarchingly, the financial situation was not adequate to promote participation (Studies III and IV). Consequently, there were also strengths and opportunities for a good everyday life and for participation. All four perspectives are important as, together, they contribute with a deeper understanding of what participation is and is not, in relation to people with ID. From the findings presented in this thesis, it can be said that participation is double-edged as the four studies highlight both the absence and presence of participation.
3.
  • Cowen Forssell, Rebecka (författare)
  • Cyberbullying : transformation of working life and its boundaries
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige liksom många andra länder genomgår en digitaliseringsprocess som påverkar hur vi tar oss an och förhåller oss till arbete. I arbetslivets digitalisering ingår även psykosociala aspekter som uppstår som en följd av ökad digital kommunikation. Cybermobbning, eller nätmobbning som det ofta refereras till i en svensk kontext, syftar på mobbning via digitala kanaler och inkluderar aggressiva eller negativa beteenden på e-post, SMS, blogg eller sociala nätverkssajter som Facebook. Medan det har bedrivits forskning om cybermobbning bland barn och ungdomar de senaste två decennierna befinner sig forskningen om cybermobbning bland vuxna i arbetslivet fortfarande i ett utforskande skede. Den här avhandlingen syftar till att utveckla ny kunskap om hur cybermobbning i arbetslivet kan förstås och förklaras. För att uppnå syftet undersöks hur cybermobbning i arbetslivet uttrycks och vilka individuella, sociala och organisatoriska implikationer mobbning medför när det sker i digitala rum. Avhandlingen har en interdisciplinär ansats och integrerar teoretiska ansatser från urbana studier, organisationspsykologi samt sociologi. Vidare tillämpas ‘mixed methods research design’ i syfte att generera skilda och komplementära perspektiv på samma fenomen. Föreliggande sammanläggningsavhandling består av tre artiklar, varav två är publicerade i vetenskapliga tidskrifter och en är under granskning för publicering. Den övergripande frågeställningen är formulerad enligt följande: På vilket sätt förändras mobbning i arbetslivet när den sker genom social interaktion i digitala rum? Tillsammans med den teoretiska diskussion som förs i kappan besvaras frågeställningen genom tre empiriska datakällor – en pilotstudie, en enkätstudie och en intervjustudie. Varje artikel i avhandlingen har sina specifika frågeställningar eller hypoteser, men den övergripande frågeställningen för avhandlingen besvaras genom att använda mixed methods. Tre övergripande teman identifieras i avhandlingen: nya maktdynamiker i cybermobbning, media-specifika uttryck i cybermobbning och konceptuella utmaningar i att studera cybermobbning. Nya maktdynamiker i cybermobbning beskriver hur maktrelationer i cybermobbning skiljer sig till viss del från maktrelationer i mobbning ansikte-mot-ansikte. Temat är baserat på resultatet som visar att fler personer i arbetsledande positioner än ickearbetsledande positioner är utsatta för cybermobbning. Detta antyder att digital kommunikation påverkar maktdynamiker och möjliggör för personer i formellt lägre positioner att mobba en chef. Ytterligare en aspekt som lyfts fram är att när digital kommunikation bidrar till en uppluckring av gränser i arbetslivet kan personer utanför organisationen såsom studenter, elever, kunder eller medborgare bli förövare av arbetsrelaterad cybermobbning. Det andra temat media-specifika uttryck i cybermobbning utgår ifrån att cybermobbning uttrycks olika i e-post jämfört med Facebook och bloggar och att cybermobbning därför bör förstås i förhållande till den kontext som den specifika kommunikationskanalen skapar. Temat är utvecklat mot bakgrund av resultatet som visar en övervikt av passiv och exkluderande mobbning via e-post och exempel på särskilt aggressiv och direkt uttryckt mobbning på Facebook och blogg. Vilka som är åskådare och kommunikationskanalens förankring i arbetsorganisationen förefaller påverka hur cybermobbning uttrycks. Det tredje temat, konceptuella utmaningar i att studera cybermobbning, framhåller en rumslig sammankoppling mellan cybermobbning och mobbning ansikte-mot-ansikte. Här diskuteras vilken betydelse överlappning mellan cybermobbning och mobbning ansikte-mot-ansikte har för tolkning av fenomenets omfattning. Vidare diskuteras några svårigheter med att studera cybermobbning utifrån traditionella operationaliseringar av mobbning.
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5.
  • Hallmer, Fredrik (författare)
  • Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw : occurence, risk factors, pathogenesis & treatment
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The antiresorptive drugs bisphosphonates and denosumab are widely used to preserve bone strength by inhibiting osteoclast mediated bone resorption. High dose intravenous bisphosphonates and high dose denosumab are mainly used to treat skeletal related events in patients with metastatic bone disease such as metastatic breast cancer and metastatic prostate cancer or in patients with multiple myeloma. In patients with osteoporosis, oral bisphosphonates are mostly used. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious side effect associated both with bisphosphonates and denosumab treatment. The first report on MRONJ was published in 2003. At first, the condition was believed to be a new disease, but it was later proved to be the same disease, which existed more than 100 years ago in match factory workers, and phosphate miners, in whom the disease was recognized as phossy jaw. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the occurrence, risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment of MRONJ. Study I describes prevalence, trigger factors and treatment outcomes of MRONJ retrospectively between the years 2003-2010 in Region Skåne. During this time, 55 patients had been diagnosed with MRONJ. Of these patients, 31 patients with a malignant disease were treated with high dose intravenous bisphosphonates and 24 patients with osteoporosis were treated with oral bisphosphonates. The prevalence of MRONJ was estimated to be 0.024% for patient on oral bisphosphonates and 2.8% for patients on high dose intravenous bisphosphonates. Tooth extraction was the most common trigger factor. After treatment of MRONJ, healing occurred more frequently in patients with osteoporosis treated with oral bisphosphonates than in patients with a malignant disease treated with high dose intravenous bisphosphonates. Study II investigated the association between microflora and MRONJ by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing technique for the detection of bacteria in necrotic bone lesions. Included were 18 consecutive patients with MRONJ, ten with osteoporosis and eight with metastatic disease. Bone biopsies were retrieved with two separate 3 mm sterile trepan burrs from the centre of the necrotic bone and from visible healthy bone. The necrotic bone lesions contained mainly anaerobic bacteria, representative for periodontal microflora, suggesting that a periodontal infection in combination with antiresorptive treatment could initiate the osteonecrosis. Study III is a prospective cohort study where the prevalence and initiating factors of MRONJ and the outcome of surgical therapy were analysed. All new cases of MRONJ between 2012 and 2015 in Region Skåne were included. Fifty-five patients with MRONJ were identified. The prevalence of MRONJ for patients on oral bisphosphonates was 0.043%, on high dose intravenous bisphosphonates 1.03% and on high dose denosumab 3.64%. Periodontal disease preceded development of MRONJ in 41 patients. Fifty patients were treated surgically and followed up for at least 2 months. Lesions progressed to remission or healing in 80.0% of patients treated with sequestrectomy and in 92.5% of patients treated with block resection. In study IV, the aim was to prospectively determine the incidence and define risk factors for MRONJ in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with zoledronic acid and/or denosumab. Breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 in the region of Skåne with one or several bone metastases and treated with zoledronic acid or denosumab were included. Systemic risk factors (age, zoledronic acid or denosumab use, treatment time, chemo-therapy or corticosteroid use, diabetes and smoking habits) were recorded. Sixteen patients of 242 (6.6%) developed MRONJ during the 77 months study period (from 1st of January 2012 to 31st of May 2018). The incidence of MRONJ in patients treated with high dose zoledronic acid was 4.1%, and for patients with high dose denosumab 13.6%. The risk of developing MRONJ in patients on denosumab was significantly higher compared to patients treated with zoledronic acid. Corticosteroid use was associated with a significant decreased risk of MRONJ and diabetes was associated with a significantly increased risk of MRONJ. Chemotherapy or smoking was not associated with a significant increased risk of MRONJ. In conclusion, the incidence of MRONJ is more than three times higher in breast cancer patients treated with denosumab compared to breast cancer patients treated with zoledronic acid. The prevalence in patients with osteoporosis on oral bisphosphonates is low, < 0.05%. Corticosteroid use decreases the risk of developing MRONJ whilst diabetes increases the risk. The most common local risk factor is a periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria play a central role in the pathogenesis and development of MRONJ. The treatment outcome of MRONJ demonstrates healing in most patients treated surgically.
6.
  • Hellborg, Anna Maria (författare)
  • "Godispengar" eller "överdådig lyx" - om elitidrott, ekonomi och jämställdhet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to problematize and analyze the conception and construction of elite athletes’ economical terms through a feministic lens. I will specifically try to investigate and illustrate how women and men who want to invest and try out for elite sports, are constructed as economical actors, how economical prerequisites to practice their sport is depicted and if, and in what way, the professionalization of the sport is gender equal. The four sports that are examined in this study are curling, football, golf and equestrian. The study contributes to the illustration of sport management issues from a feministic, gender and equality perspective. I have chosen multiple theories that I believe explain the different parts of my material in relation to feminism, gender equality and gender theories. The concepts used are the connection between material and cultural inequality (Fraser and Ridgeway), dominance and power structures (Young and Halldenius), the connection between the public and the private (Okin) and the gender contract (Hirdman). Mainly two types of material are used. An analysis of the sport associations’ official magazines and interviews with different organizational leaders within the associations. This dissertation shows that the issues regarding financial conditions for elite athletes are depicted differently in the different sports. There are diverse challenges for the sports and their associations in the work towards gender equality. The different conditions are affected by size, status, connections to the market and dependence of funds. Several problematic issues are identified such as distribution of resources by the associations, the distribution by sponsors, the distribution by the SOK, prize money and family life. The struggle for a gender equal distribution of resources in elite sports are ongoing. The magazines depict women as receiving less money than men in their sports. A common argument for this distribution is the greater interest in men’s sports, which refers to that men’s sports generate more money. Women’s sport is economically marginalized. An excessive redistribution of assets and a restructuring of the control over resources are necessary aspects to rectify gender inequality. Professional sports as they appear today, partly controlled by the market, are not gender equal. It appears to be a great gap between gender equality and the market logic. As it appears from this study, a key seems to be adding value to women’s sports on all levels, from associations to spectators. The relationship between the Swedish state and the sports movement (RF) is defined by an implicit contract. The state provides funds to RF and in turn, RF has a responsibility to make sure sport is equal for all. Since the implicit contract also means that the state does not interfere with how the sport confederation distribute the funds this means that the distribution of resources benefits men’s elite sports because it is considered more worthy by the sport organizations. RF do not fulfill their part of the contract and the state approves the inequality by not making demands. The implicit contract becomes gender impregnated.
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7.
  • Karlsson, Annika (författare)
  • Det flerspråkiga NO-klassrummet - En studie om translanguaging som läranderesurs i ett NO-klassrum
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med denna avhandling är att synliggöra flerspråkiga elevers användning av sina första- och andraspråk i ett flerspråkigt NO-klassrum där man använder och uppmuntrar translanguaging och tydliggöra om och i så fall på vilka sätt dessa processer kan skapa förutsättningar för lärande. Avhandlingen utgår från sociokulturella teorier om språk och lärande, med särskilt fokus på social-semiotiska perspektiv. Vidare används dialogiska och pragmatiska paradigm som på olika sätt kan sägas vara sammankopplade med eller bidra till sociokulturella perspektiv på språk och lärande. Dessutom används teorier om translanguaging för att tydliggöra och öka förståelsen för flerspråkiga elevers möte med NO-klassrummet. För att utveckla djupare förståelse för på vilka sätt translanguaging som metod kan skapa ökade förutsättningar för flerspråkiga elevers lärande används en etnografisk datainsamling och forskningsdesign. Studien följer några NO-lektioner varje månad i en mellanstadieklass under tre års tid (2012-2015). Lektionerna dokumenteras med hjälp av fyra videokameror och fyra diktafoner och den totalt inspelade tiden från lektionerna är 117 timmar. Dessutom samlas fältanteckningar, elevtexter och olika undervisningsmaterial in. Datamaterialet består även av inspelade samtal med fyra elever som vid tillfället för datainsamlingen är nyanlända. Analysen visar att eleverna rör sig i språkliga loopar mellan både nationella och diskursiva språk i meningsskapande samtal om det naturvetenskapliga ämnesinnehållet, samt att de använder sina första- och andraspråk för att förklara, beskriva och sammanlänka semantiska relationer inom olika naturvetenskapliga ämnesområden. Vidare visar analysen att elevernas användning av sina första- och andraspråk ofta utgör en resurs i elevernas appropriering av den naturvetenskapliga skoldiskursen. Eleverna och studiehandledaren använder ofta sina första- och andraspråk för att förtydliga ämnesinnehåll och förklara olika klassrumsaktiviteter för varandra. Emellertid avslöjar analysen också situationer i denna praktik där alla tillgängliga resurser inte utnyttjas och kontinuiteten i klassrumsaktiviteterna blir avbruten på olika sätt. Dessa situationer verkar vara konsekvenser av låga förväntningar på elever med begränsad tillgång till undervisningsspråket, vilket uttrycks i en förenkling av det språk som används, kontextualisering av ämnesinnehållet till vardagliga erfarenheter som kanske inte delas av alla elever, samt komplexiteten att översätta och transformera det naturvetenskapliga ämnesinnehållet från ett språk till ett annat (arabiska och svenska) och mellan en vardaglig och en mer akademisk diskurs. Studien bidrar till fältet genom att illustrera vikten av att stödja varje elevs tillgång till de språkliga verktyg som konstituerar det naturvetenskapliga ämnesinnehållet, samt främja användningen av alla tillgängliga resurser, såsom första- och andraspråket, för att relatera det naturvetenskapliga ämnesinnehållet till tidigare erfarenhet och därmed skapa ett kontinuerligt lärande i flerspråkiga NO-klassrum.
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9.
  • Rudnert, Joel (författare)
  • Bland stenyxor och tv-spel : om barn, historisk tid och när unga blir delaktiga i historiekulturen
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the processes through which children become increasingly involved in historical culture. It does this by examining how children develop thinking in historical time. Historical time is defined in the thesis using Ricoeur's theory of three intellectual tools with which perceived and physical time is bridged. These tools are the calendar, generation and the trace. Using, among other things, Vygotsky's theory of cultural tools, Ricoeur's theory was operationalized, and was tested against an empirical material. The empirical material was collected from videotaped conversations with children between the ages of four and twelve, in focus groups. A total of 136 children from schools in Malmo participated. The study is concentrated on a number of historical objects such as Stone Age axes, as well as modern objects such as mobile phones. In one of the three studies, a timeline was introduced into the situation in order to examine the impact of an important cultural tool. The results show that the children became increasingly involved in the history culture by acquiring the investigated cultural tools. With the help of calendar time, the children became better at relating the historical objects to history. With the help of the concept of generation, the children had the opportunity to relate the historical objects to their own lives, but also a tool that helped them decenter in time. The children decentered in time by adopting historical perspectives for past generations, but also for future generations. Finally, the trace can be regarded as a cultural schema that the children used to tie the presence of the historical objects in the present with the contemporary context in which they were part in the past. Through the use of the three tools calendar, generation and the trace, the children became better at orienting themselves in historical time and in this way they became increasingly more competent participants in the history culture.
10.
  • Walldén, Robert (författare)
  • Genom genrens lins : pedagogisk kommunikation i tidigare skolår
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this dissertation is to explore how two teachers communicate content knowledge and metalinguistic knowledge in the teaching of young second language learners. As a qualitative classroom study, it examines how two widely advocated forms of metaknowledge are used in instruction: metalinguistic knowledge, in particular genre knowledge, and reading strategies. Bernstein’s sociology of education theory is synthesized with systemic-function linguistic theory to explore how the participant teachers scaffold and place varying demands on the students. The central concept is pedagogic communication, which is defined as the way in which the teachers use language to communicate instructional content, build and uphold relations and organize information flows in teaching. The materials for the study have been generated through audio recordings, observations and collected teaching materials in school years 1 and 6. The school has a high percentage of second language learners and implements genre-based instruction. The empirical chapters focus on preparations for reading assignments, weekly instances of “sharing time” and a genre-based curriculum area about stories in school year one and a curriculum area about maps and population which integrates geography and Swedish as a second language in school year 6. An important finding is that strongly controlled classroom discourse was associated with introducing and reminding students of abstract concepts in the studied interaction, including metalinguistic and subject-related concepts. Conversely, weaker control tended to promote negotiation of everyday knowledge rather than disciplinary knowledge while also placing implicit demands on students’ participation in the discourse. The study also attends to less-researched features of classroom discourse and scaffolding, such as how the teachers showed solidarity and built engagement through interpersonal resources and managed the information flow through textual ones. A final important finding is that the explicit attention to metaknowledge, such as genre knowledge and knowledge about reading strategies, seemed to come at the expense of encounters with meaningful texts. Therefore, it is argued that such domains of metaknowledge should not become the main instructional content.
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