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  • Karlsson, Susanna, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Investigating dilemmas in language policy implementation.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: IRSPM Annual Conference. Budapest: 19-21 April. - Budapest : IRSPM.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper concerns the implementation of language policies within institutions for Swedish higher education. More specifically, the paper focuses on how the implementation process becomes manifested through language planning policy documents governing how and when which languages could or should be used. This paper explores how governmental policies have been transformed and implemented within institutions for higher education within Sweden. The purpose is to study language planning documents within institutions for higher education in order to disclose how dilemmas emerge through policy implementation. Higher education in Sweden can be divided into three contexts: research, education, and administration. Following Pierre and Painter (2010) these contexts can be conceptualized as welfare services and functions of legality. Of specific interest is the fact that although not all institutions for higher education are governmental agencies, all have to abide by the laws directing their legality functions. In this paper, two governmental policies are studied. First, all institutions for higher education should follow the Language Act (SFS 2009:600), dictating that Swedish is the principal language in Sweden. Also, the Act states that the language of all organizations performing public sector functions should be Swedish. Second, institutions for higher education should strive towards increased internationalization (Prop. 2004/05:162). In effect, this causes a dilemma between Swedish as the principal language and the focus on international actors. The empirical data consists of twenty-two language planning policy documents from Swedish institutions for higher education collected during 2015 and 2016. These are all available such documents to date. The research process was undertaken in two phases. During the first phase, all documents were subject to content analysis through close reading. It was found that the texts strongly coincided with research, education, and administration. The second phase involved a qualitative analysis concerning the preferences for choice of language within these three contexts. This paper draws on dilemma theory (cf. Hampden-Turner 1970, 2009) in order to analyze how institutions for higher education in Sweden face contradictory policy goals. Dilemmas are understood to be two desirable alternatives, that are individually perceived as logical. Together they present organizations with difficulties of achieving both. In this paper, dilemma is studied through the policies underpinning the construction of language planning documents. Following the analysis of the paper, three important topics are found to govern how and when which languages have primacy. First, the context of research contains rationalizations of Swedish as well as English as preferred language(s). Other language(s) are permitted, but are not exclusively identified. Second, the context of education contains rationalizations about the need for both Swedish and other languages depending on the situation. Third, the context of administration reveals how institutions for higher education are firmly grounded as performing governmental organizations. The main conclusion concerns the differing signals inherent in the underpinning governmental policies. The policy implementation of internationalization as well as the Language Act come to chafe against one another, causing dilemmas. It is discussed how such dilemmas result in problems for both internationalization and adherence to the Language Act.
  • Ligthart, Symen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Analyses of >200,000 Individuals Identify 58 Loci for Chronic Inflammation and Highlight Pathways that Link Inflammation and Complex Disorders
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. ; 103:5, s. 691-706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.
  • Karlsson, Tom, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Considering (New Public) Civil Servants: Emerging Roles and Contexts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Offentlig förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration. - 2000-8058. ; 22:3, s. 3-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Public organizations In the 21stcentury, are increasingly complex in terms of multiple institutional rules, norms, and practices. This complexity constitutes a difficult challenge for civil servants to find and determine appropriate identities, roles and relationships in their everyday work. For this special issue we made a call for scholars to contribute new addressing the roles of civil servants within increasingly complex public sector organizations, focusing on a couple of interrelated research questions: What is the nature of public administration taking into consideration increasing institutional complexity in terms of persistent bureaucratic traditions, new public management solutions, participatory ideals, activist sentiments among officials and so forth? What are the consequences of this institutional complexity for the possibility of preserving a coherent, rule-governed public administration and what does public mean today in public administration? What types of roles are civil servants playing in relation to different institutional rules and norms and various categories of actor (politicians, citizens, organizations) and how do they handle frictions and conflicts? What type of conceptions of civil servants’ roles are developing, including public service ethics? What alternative and contesting role-conceptions and ethics are prevalent and supported? This introduction should be understood as being both a summary of the current state of research in relation to civil service – its predicaments and challenges – as well as being a suggestion for future attention among scholars and practitioners. We have thus written this introduction not only with the purpose of summarizing the main components inherent in the six articles that are included in this special issue but with the hope of also spurring discussions concerning what civil service has been, currently seems to be and might become in the future.
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