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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES) "

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51.
  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 978-2-9562029-0-5 ; s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.</p>
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52.
  • Välfärdspolitik i praktiken : om perspektiv och metoder i forskning
  • 2007
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <p>Förändringar av människors villkor i samhället kräver nya sätt att forska. I den här antologin presenteras olika redskap för kvalitativ forskning om välfärd. I antologin utgår forskarna från redan välkända traditioner inom samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, men argumenterar inte bara för etablerade forskningsmetoder och teoretiska perspektiv inom välfärdsforskningen utan också för nya. Antologin har arbetats fram inom ramen för Nordiska Sommaruniversitetet och därmed influerats av olika forskningstraditioner som förekommer vid universitet och högskolor i Norden.</p> <p>Nya forskningsmetoder där människornas egna utsagor och upplevelser tillvaratas kan tolkas utifrån redan etablerade teoretiska perspektiv som fenomenologi, hermeneutik och interaktionism. De forskningsansatser som presenteras möjliggör att människor även själva är med och formulerar bilden av sina livsvillkor. I antologin visas hur forskning med dessa ansatser kan ske tillsammans med människor i olika åldrar och livssituationer. I antologin visas också att komparativa ansatser kan öppna för nya insikter om olika dimensioner i välfärdsystemet som en kulturell praktik.</p>
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53.
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54.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Pure Selection. The Ethics of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Choosing Children without Abortion
  • 1999
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Preimplantation ge¬netic diagnosis (PGD) is taken to mark the starting-point of a new phase in human reproduction, where the possibility of choosing children on genetic grounds without having to resort to ethi¬cally controversial procedures (such as abortion) will grad¬ually increase. Ethical and political issues actu¬alised by this develop¬ment are addressed. The discussion touches upon issues regarding the moral status of em¬bryos and gametes, the moral import of respecting individual auton¬omy and its implications for the requirement of informed consent in health-care, the connec¬tion between sickness, dis¬ability and the value of life, the moral status of possible future people, and the connection between choosing children and eugenic policies of the past. Practical policy issues are adressed on the basis of this, as well as an empirical case-study of the intro¬duction of PGD in Sweden. The book ends up in a set of recommendations regarding the management of re¬search on, introduction and routine use of procedures for pure se¬lection, both within health care and from the point of view of society as a whole. It is argued that research on such procedures should be allowed and supported by society. However, tight restrictions regarding the clinical introduction of new procedures in this area is highly desirable. A rough model for implementing such re¬strictions is also pre¬sented. It is further asserted that, although reasons of economy and safety should limit the access to pure se¬lection, society should not apply any explicit restrictions based on ideasregarding how different traits affect a person’s quality of life. It is stressed that, in order to to avoid a re¬sur¬rection of eugenic policies of the past, the development in this field un¬der¬lines the need for continued and strengthen public support to the sick, dis¬abled and mentally retarded.
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55.
  • Nilsson, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The precarious practice of forensic psychiatric risk assessments
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527. ; 32:6, s. 400-407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of forensic psychiatric risk assessments is discussed from a clinical point of view using the example of Sweden. A central task in forensic psychiatry has traditionally been to identify dangerous, mentally disordered subjects considered to be prone to commit violent acts. Over time, "dangerousness" has been reworded into "risk". Nevertheless, such assessments have generally been based on the psychiatric factors characterising the individual patient, while group interaction, situational factors, or social and cultural circumstances, such as the availability of alcohol and drugs, have been largely overlooked. That risk assessments have a focused on people with a diagnosis of "mental disorder" and been used as grounds for coercive measures and integrity violations has somehow been accepted as a matter of course in the public and political debate. Even the basic question whether offenders with a mental disorder are really more prone to criminal recidivism than other offenders seems to have been treated light-handedly and dealt with merely by epidemiological comparisons between groups of persons with broad ranges of psychosocial vulnerability and the general population. Legal texts, instructions and guidelines from the authorities in charge are often vague and general, while actors in the judicial system seem to put their trust in psychiatric opinions. The exchange of professional opinions, general public expectations, and judicial decision processes poses a huge risk for misunderstandings based on divergent expectations and uses of terminology. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
56.
57.
  • kaiser, matthias, et al. (författare)
  • Food ethics: a Wide Field in Need of Dialogue
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Food Ethics. - 2364-6853 .- 2364-6861. ; 1:1, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are a few things which are obviously a central part of everyone’s life, at all times, and all over the globe, and which are crucial for our wellbeing. Food is, like sex, such an essential ingredient of our life, an ingredient of what we expect of a good life. What is on our plates is always a result of nature and culture, to the extent that it may seem hard to find commonalities in our global diet. As academics we have asked different questions about food. For a long time these questions have been dominated by the quest to secure enough food and to improve what we have got. It is, however, noteworthy that we also always have asked the normative questions in relation to food: Is it right to eat this kind of food? Do we produce our food the right way? Is there injustice and bad power in the way we distribute the food? Are we lied to in regard to what is on our plate? When we enter the normative realm, we enter the realm of ethics, understood in a wide and comprehensive way. As all normative questions, we need to be well informed by knowledge about how the world is, and what is at stake and for whom. We call this food ethics. Food ethics raises issues and asks questions in relation to food all along the value chains. It also puts things into relation with each other. At the same time it disentangles complex heaps of factors and pieces of knowledge, and looks for guidance. It is issue driven, rather than interest driven. It unites scholars with farmers and fishermen, chefs with industry, consumers with lawyers, and food citizens with authorities. As a young field within academia it is important to guard against efforts to appropriate the field for narrow interests, and instead to combine the natural and social sciences in analysing and addressing the challenges. We do not necessarily call for the grand ethical theory that explains it all, but rather start with the simple things in a very complex overall picture. We want to draw attention to ethically significant facts, discuss problematic developments, point to genuine dilemmas, learn about food relevant contexts and history, and look for individual, professional and institutional responses to ethical challenges and issues. Thus, one of the missions of this new journal Food Ethics, is to widen the scope and the discussion on the topic, and to be inclusive in terms of who has something to contribute to the field. There is no escaping from confronting very complex issues when it comes to managing one of the most basic needs we all have, food. As editors of this new journal we maintain that food ethics deserves special and inter-disciplinary attention by researchers, that it is not sufficiently dealt with by what is currently known as bioethics, that it is intrinsically connected with the so-called grand societal challenges of our time, that it is a globally important field which demands particular attention to complexities and uncertainties, as much as it needs to be explicit about what values are at stake and for whom, and which normative principles it touches upon.
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58.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • How drug resistance challenges medical ethics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ethikforum "public health ethics”, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, München, Germany, February 6, 2018.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
59.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Testing Interventions for Drastic Public Health Threats: "Social Value”, Pragmatic Risks and the Challenge of ”Health-related Research” Ethics – The Case of drug Resistance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Matariki Research Ethics Workshop, Bader International Study Center, Herstmonceux Castle, East Sussex, UK, August 14-17, 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The recently revised CIOMS guidelines radically broaden both that scope of the guidelines from medical to all kinds of health research), and the basis on which such research may be assessed ethically, not least what is called ”social value” of research. This makes these guidelines less on a par with the WMA’s Declaration of Helsinki principles for biomedical research, e.g. with regard to what kind of benefits may justify risks to research subjects and others, and ethical requirements regarding the management of such risks. While DoH still mostly expresses an orthodox individualist research ethical perspective of a sort that has enjoys traditional support in bioethics, but has attracted some criticism from a public health ethical perspective, the new CIOMS guidelines seem to open up for more consideration of collective, institutional and public goods, and possibility of having these traded off against risks to individuals. This paper uses interventions meant to prevent or mitigate problems due to antibiotic resistance as a case in point, to discuss how a sound research ethical regulation should position itself with regard to research regarding health interventions of great importance for (global) public health. A particular focus will be the balancing of individual and collective goods/bads in face of threats of having core institutions and central public goods undermined.
60.
  • Groglopo, Adrián, 1967- (författare)
  • Demokrati, Islamofobi och Sveriges framtid - Intervju med Sveriges Unga Muslimers ordförande Rashid Musa
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Antirasistiska Akademin.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rashid Musa är ordförande för Sveriges Unga Muslimer (SUM). I denna intervju talar Rashid och Adrián om demokrati, rasism och islamofobi samt om behovet av en ny politisk mobilisering av de rasifierade andra. Intervjuserie som finansierades av Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällsfrågor. Projektet handlar om 17 djupintervjuer med både forskare som studerar rasism i Sverige och aktivister som arbetar med frågor om rasism och mänskliga rättigheter. Projektansvarig och intervjuare: Adrián Groglopo.
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