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61.
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62.
  • Petersson, Jesper, 1974- (författare)
  • Geographies of eHealth: Studies of Healthcare at a Distance
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis examines the proliferation of healthcare services using information and communication technology to overcome spatial and temporal obstacles. These services are given such names as telemedicine and telecare, which are sometimes grouped together as telehealthcare under the umbrella term eHealth. My main argument is that a prevalent and overoptimistic rhetoric of how the possibilities of digitalization are expected to produce a homogenous and ubiquitous healthcare space conceals many of the spatiotemporal complexities involved in introducing telehealthcare and in the overall organizing of healthcare. To counteract such simplifications, I contend that we need a relational understanding of the technical and the geographical as always nested in the social and vice versa. With such an approach, it is arguably possible to begin to tease apart the many spatiotemporal entanglements of these innovations and to trace their political ramifications. This position is developed by integrating perspectives from science and technology studies with insights from human geography. The four constituent papers of this thesis pursue this argument in qualitatively grounded case studies of telehealthcare and its geographies. Paper I looks at various initiatives for fetal tele-ultrasonography, demonstrating that this practice cannot be reduced to a mere transparent relay for the speedy transmission of digital information across space and time. The paper investigates how its introduction could affect medical knowledge production, power hierarchies, and subject positions, for example, the status attributed to the fetal figure. Paper II traces Swedish transformations of telehealthcare. The use of telemedicine to reach those outside medicine’s range has arguably been accompanied by efforts to achieve intra-organizational streamlining via telemedicine. This process has continued with the emergence of telecare for personal use directed toward the overlapping groups of the elderly people and patients with chronic conditions. I contend that this shift can be understood through a geographical lens as attempts to save space and time by keeping as many patients as possible out of costly hospitalization and preventing them from engaging scarce specialist resources. Paper III compares four telemedicine projects in Sweden. In detailing how the purpose of practicing telemedicine differed between these projects in relation to, for example, the specifics of distance, care availability, and treated medical conditions, the paper demonstrates the existence of many versions of telemedicine. Whereas this fluidity could further the spread of telemedicine, it could also cause problems. To various actors wanting to use telemedicine in a homogenous and fixed way for national streamlining purposes, this diversity has generated confusion when they wished to align telemedicine in a preferred direction. The paper concludes that technology travels best when it can contain both fluid and fixed relationships. Paper IV argues that, whatever is claimed about creating a space- and time-independent healthcare by means of telehealthcare, the use of telecare to connect the standardized spaces of healthcare with the fluid everyday lives of elderly people and patients with chronic conditions actually works by unfolding new spaces of visibilities and establishing new temporalities as well. By investigating these spatiotemporalities, I demonstrate how these applications draw together discourses on individual freedom with medically derived algorithms and concerns about how to make best use of scarce healthcare resources.
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63.
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64.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • The Price of Precaution and the Ethics of Risk
  • 2011
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Since a couple of decades, the notion of a precautionary principle plays a central and increasingly influential role in international as well as national policy and regulation regarding the environment and the use of technology. Urging society to take action in the face of potential risks of human activities in these areas, the recent focus on climate change has further sharpened the importance of this idea. However, the idea of a precautionary principle has also been problematised and criticised by scientists, scholars and policy activists, and been accused of almost every intellectual sin imaginable: unclarity, impracticality, arbitrariness and moral as well as political unsoundness. In that light, the very idea of precaution as an ideal for policy making rather comes out as a dead end. On the basis of these contrasting starting points, Christian Munthe undertakes an innovative, in-depth philosophical analysis of what the idea of a precautionary principle is and should be about. A novel theory of the ethics of imposing risks is developed and used as a foundation for defending the idea of precaution in environmental and technological policy making against its critics, while at the same time avoiding a number of identified flaws. The theory is shown to have far-reaching consequences for areas such as bio-, information- and nuclear technology, and global environmental policy in areas such as climate change. The author argues that, while the price we pay for precaution must not be too high, we have to be prepared to pay it in order to act ethically defensible. A number of practical suggestions for precautionary regulation and policy making are made on the basis of this, and some challenges to basic ethical theory as well as consumerist societies, the global political order and liberal democracy are identified
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65.
  • Andersson, Anders-Petter, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Musical interaction for health improvement
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Interactive Music Composition. - Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>During the past decade, tangible sensor technologies have matured and become less expensive and easier to use, leading to an explosion of innovative musical designs within video games, smartphone applications, and interactive art installations. Interactive audio has become an important design quality in commercially successful games like Guitar Hero , and a range of mobile phone applications motivating people to interact, play, dance, and collaborate with music. Parallel to the game, phone, and art scenes, an area of music and health research has grown, showing the positive results of using music to promote health and wellbeing in everyday situations and for a broad range of people, from children and elderly to people with psychological and physiological disabilities. Both quantitative medical and ecological humanistic research show that interaction with music can improve health, through music’s ability to evoke feelings, motivate people to interact, master, and cope with difficult situations, create social relations and experience shared meaning. Only recently, however, the music and health field has started to take interest in interactive audio, based on computer-mediated technologies’ potential for health improvement. Here, we show the potential of using interactive audio in what we call interactive musicking in the computer-based interactive environment Wave. Interactive musicking is based on musicologist Christopher Small’s concept “musicking”, meaning any form of relation-building that occurs between people, and people and things, related to activities that include music. For instance, musicking includes dancing, listening, and playing with music (in professional contexts and in amateur, everyday contexts). We have adapted the concept of "musicking" on the design of computer-based musical devices. The context for this chapter is the research project RHYME. RHYME is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the Centre for Music and Health at the Norwegian Academy of Music, the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO), and Informatics at the University of Oslo. Our target group is families with children with severe disabilities. Our goal is to improve health and wellbeing in the families through everyday musicking activities in interactive environments. Our research approach is to use knowledge from music and health research, musical composition and improvisation, musical action research, musicology, music sociology, and soundscape studies, when designing the tangible interactive environments. Our focus here is interaction design and composition strategies, following research-by-design methodology, creating interactive musicking environments. We describe the research and design of the interactive musicking environment Wave, based on video documentation, during a sequence of actions. Our findings suggest some interactive audio design strategies to improve health. We base the design strategies on musical actions performed while playing an instrument, such as impulsive or iterative hitting, or sustainable stroking of an instrument. Musical actions like these can also be used for musicking in everyday contexts, creating direct sound responses to evoke feelings that create expectations and confirm interactions. In opposition to a more control-oriented, instrument and interface perspective, we argue that musical variation and narrative models can be used to design interactive audio, where the audio is seen as an actor taking many different roles, as instrument, co-musician, toy, etc. In this way, the audio and the interactive musicking environments will change over time, answering with direct response, as well as nose-thumbing and changing response, motivating creation, play, and social interaction. Musical variation can also be used to design musical backgrounds and soundscapes that can be used for creating layers of ambience. These models create a safe environment and contribute to shared meaning.</p>
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66.
  • Gardulf, A, et al. (författare)
  • The Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale: A tool that can be used in national and international assessments of nursing education programmes.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Nursing Research. ; 39:3, s. 137-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract The quality of basic nursing bachelor programmes nationally and internationally must regularly be assessed to ensure that they fulfil requirements and are appropriate in relation to developments and changes in societies and healthcare systems. There is a need for instruments in helping to assess this. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale could serve as a tool to measure and detect possible differences between universities/university colleges regarding nursing students’ self-reported competence. Totally, 543 nursing students who had just completed their academic three-year nursing bachelor programmes at 10 universities/university colleges in Sweden participated in the study (response rate 71%). The students answered the NPC Scale with its 88 items constituting eight competence areas (CAs) and two overarching themes. The results from using the NPC Scale by the students were then compared between the 10 universities/university colleges. Significant mean score differences were found between the universities/university colleges on all CAs and on both themes. The highest mean score differences were found for the CAs ‘Medical and technical care’ and ‘Documentation and information technology’. The lowest mean score differences were found for the CAs ‘Value-based nursing care’ and ‘Leadership in and development of nursing’. It is concluded that the NPC Scale can serve as a useful tool in national and international assessments of nursing bachelor programmes.
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67.
  • Berlin, Cecilia, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Production Ergonomics: Designing Work Systems to Support Optimal Human Performance
  • 2017
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Production ergonomics – the science and practice of designing industrial workplaces to optimize human well-being and system performance – is a complex challenge for a designer. Humans are a valuable and flexible resource in any system of creation, and as long as they stay healthy, alert and motivated, they perform well and also become more competent over time, which increases their value as a resource. However, if a system designer is not mindful or aware of the many threats to health and system performance that may emerge, the end result may include inefficiency, productivity losses, low working morale, injuries and sick-leave.To help budding system designers and production engineers tackle these design challenges holistically, this book offers a multi-faceted orientation in the prerequisites for healthy and effective human work. We will cover physical, cognitive and organizational aspects of ergonomics, and provide both the individual human perspective and that of groups and populations, ending up with a look at global challenges that require workplaces to become more socially and economically sustainable. This book is written to give you a warm welcome to the subject, and to provide a solid foundation for improving industrial workplaces to attract and retain healthy and productive staff in the long run.
68.
  • Brodin, Jane, 1942-, et al. (författare)
  • IRIS Teacher Training : CD
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: IRIS Improvement through research in the invclusive school.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>CD in English from the IRIS Teacher Training package. International cooperation between Austria, Belgium, Catalonia (Spain), England, Portugal and Sweden. Focus is on inclusive education and classroom climate.</p>
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69.
  • Sonesten, Lars (författare)
  • Deformiteter hos oligochaeter i Vänern
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Bottenlevande slamr&ouml;rmaskar, oligochaeter, &auml;r k&auml;nsliga milj&ouml;indikatorer i alla typerav vatten. I en retrospektiv studie har deformiteter hos oligochaeter fr&aring;n treolika nordliga V&auml;nervikar j&auml;mf&ouml;rts under en period med minskad antropogen belastningmed avseende p&aring; n&auml;rings&auml;mnen och olika metaller. Stora m&auml;ngder av milj&ouml;farliga&auml;mnen finns dock lagrade i de sediment som oligochaeterna lever i.Resultaten fr&aring;n unders&ouml;kningen visar p&aring; att de allra gr&ouml;vsta deformitetsformerna,dvs. groteskt f&ouml;r&auml;ndrade ventrala borst, med tiden generellt sett har minskat i omfattning.Det finns d&auml;remot inga tecken p&aring; att l&auml;ttare deformiteter har minskatn&auml;mnv&auml;rt annat &auml;n lokalt. Ut&ouml;ver de skador som noterades p&aring; ventrala borst vidtidigare unders&ouml;kningar s&aring; noterades i denna unders&ouml;kning &auml;ven att deformiteterhos b&aring;de dorsala och ventrala borst har tillkommit hos arten Potamothrix hammoniensisi samtliga tre fj&auml;rdar. Deformiteterna sp&auml;nner mellan l&auml;ttare och mergrava skador, d&auml;r de l&auml;tta dominerar. Liknande skador hos dorsala borst har endastundantagsvis setts i tidigare material fr&aring;n V&auml;nern.&Auml;ven om f&ouml;rekomsten av de mest grava deformiteterna har minskat, s&aring; visar resultatenp&aring; att de l&auml;ttare skadorna inte har minskat noterbart under den unders&ouml;ktaperioden annat &auml;n p&aring; vissa provplatser. Detta skulle kunna tyda p&aring; att oligochaeternafortfarande p&aring;verkas av upplagrade milj&ouml;gifter i sedimenten.
70.
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