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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) "

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12241.
  • Therkildsen, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • The predictive value of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN for anti-EGFR treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 53:7, s. 852-864
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutation testing for KRAS exon 2 is widely implemented to select patients with wild-type tumors for treatment with the monocloncal anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. The added predictive value of additional biomarkers in the RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways in colorectal cancer is uncertain, which led us to systematically review the impact of alterations in KRAS (outside of exon 2), NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN in relation to the clinical benefit from anti-EGFR treatment. Methods. In total, 22 studies that include 2395 patients formed the basis for a meta-analysis on alterations in KRAS exons 3 and 4, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA and PTEN and outcome of anti-EGFR treatment. Odds ratios for objective response rate (ORR) and hazard ratios (HR) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Results. Mutations in KRAS exons 3 and 4, BRAF, PIK3CA and non-functional PTEN (mutations or loss of protein expression) significantly predicted poor ORR (OR = 0.26, OR = 0.29, OR = 0.39, and OR = 0.41, respectively). Significantly shorter PFS applied to mutations in KRAS exons 3 and 4 (HR = 2.19), NRAS (HR = 2.30) and BRAF (HR = 2.95) and non-functional PTEN (HR = 1.88). Significantly shorter OS applied to mutations in KRAS exons 3 and 4 (HR = 1.78), NRAS (HR = 1.85), BRAF (HR = 2.52), PIK3CA (HR = 1.43) and alterations in PTEN (HR = 2.09). Conclusions. Meta-analysis suggests that mutations in KRAS exons 3 and 4, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA and non-functional PTEN predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapies and demonstrates that biomarker analysis beyond KRAS exon 2 should be implemented for prediction of clinical benefit from anti-EGFR antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer.
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12242.
  • Thieblemont, Catherine, et al. (författare)
  • The Germinal Center/Activated B-Cell Subclassification Has a Prognostic Impact for Response to Salvage Therapy in Relapsed/Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma : A Bio-CORAL Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 29:31, s. 4079-4087
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of the cell of origin (COO) in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBLC), prospectively treated by rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) versus rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide and followed by intensive therapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation on the Collaborative Trial in Relapsed Aggressive Lymphoma (CORAL) trial.</p><p>Patients and Methods: Among the 396 patients included on the trial, histologic material was available for a total of 249 patients at diagnosis (n = 189 patients) and/or at relapse (n = 147 patients), which included 87 matched pairs. The patient data were analyzed by immunochemistry for CD10, BCL6, MUM1, FOXP1, and BCL2 expression and by fluorescent in situ hybridization for BCL2, BCL6 and c-MYC breakpoints. The correlation with survival data was performed by using the log-rank test and the Cox model.</p><p>Results: Characteristics of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities were statistically highly concordant in the matched biopsies. In univariate analysis, the presence of c-MYC gene rearrangement was the only parameter to be significantly correlated with a worse progression-free survival (PFS; P = .02) and a worse overall survival (P = .04). When treatment interaction was tested, the germinal center B (GCB) -like DLBCL that was based on the algorithm by Hans was significantly associated with a better PFS in the R-DHAP arm. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic relevance was found for the GCB/non-GCB the Hans phenotype interaction treatment (P = .04), prior rituximab exposure (P = .0052), secondary age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (P = .039), and FoxP1 expression (P = .047). Confirmation was obtained by gene expression profiling in a subset of 39 patients.</p><p>Conclusion: COO remains a major and independent factor in relapsed/refractory DLBCL, with a better response to R-DHAP in GCB-like DLBCL. This needs confirmation by a prospective study.</p>
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12243.
  • Thodeti, CK, et al. (författare)
  • ADAM12/syndecan-4 signaling promotes beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading through protein kinase C alpha and RhoA
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 278:11, s. 9576-9584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) comprise a large family of multidomain proteins with cell-binding and metalloprotease activities. The ADAM12 cysteine-rich domain (rADAM12-cys) supports cell attachment using syndecan-4 as a primary cell surface receptor that subsequently triggers beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading, stress fiber assembly, and focal adhesion formation. This process contrasts with cell adhesion on fibronectin, which is integrin-initiated but syndecan-4-dependent. In the present study, we investigated ADAM12/syndecan-4 signaling leading to cell spreading and stress fiber formation. We demonstrate that syndecan-4, when present in significant amounts, promotes beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading and stress fiber formation in response to rADAM12-cys. A mutant form of syndecan-4 deficient in protein kinase C (PKC)alpha activation or a different member of the syndecan family, syndecan-2, was unable to promote cell spreading. GF109203X and Go6976, inhibitors of PKC, completely inhibited ADAM12/syndecan-4-induced cell spreading. Expression of syndecan-4, but not syn4DeltaI, resulted in the accumulation of activated beta(1) integrins at the cell periphery in Chinese hamster ovary beta1 cells as revealed by 12G10 staining. Further, expression of myristoylated, constitutively active PKCalpha resulted in beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading, but additional activation of RhoA was required to induce stress fiber formation. In summary, these data provide novel insights into syndecan-4 signaling. Syndecan-4 can promote cell spreading in a beta(1) integrin-dependent fashion through PKCalpha and RhoA, and PKCalpha and RhoA likely function in separate pathways.
12244.
  •  
12245.
  • Thodeti, Charles Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Leukotriene D4-induced calcium signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation, and Radiation Injury, 5 (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology). - Springer. - 0065-2598. - 978-0-306-47283-1 ; 507, s. 187-191
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • LTD4 induces a calcium signal that consists of a mobilization from internal stores regulated by PTX-insensitive G protein, Rho, and, an influx across the plasma membrane regulated by PTX-sensitive Gi protein in human intestinal epithelial cells. The LTD4 induced mobilization of Ca2+ is mediated by a PH domain dependent association between PLC-gamma 1 and G beta gamma subunits. This interaction requires Src kinase activity as well as the association of this kinase with PLC-gamma 1, suggesting a G beta gamma mediated recruitment of proteins to the plasma membrane and formation of a signaling complex which is essential for the downstream Ca2+ signal. We found a cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity upstream of tyrosine kinase(s) and downstream of Gi protein, that is essential for LTD4-induced Ca2+ influx. This model of the LTD4-induced Ca2+ signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells is outlined schematically in Fig. 1.
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12246.
  • Thodeti, Charles Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • The epsilon isoform of protein kinase C is involved in regulation of the LTD(4)-induced calcium signal in human intestinal epithelial cells
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - Academic Press. - 1090-2422. ; 262:2, s. 95-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the potential roles of specific isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of leukotriene D(4)-induced Ca(2+) signaling in the intestinal epithelial cell line Int 407. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that these cells express the PKC isoforms alpha, betaII, delta, epsilon, zeta, and mu, but not betaI, gamma, eta, or theta;. The inflammatory mediator leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) caused the TPA-sensitive PKC isoforms alpha, delta, and epsilon, but not betaII, to rapidly translocate to a membrane-enriched fraction. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X at 30 microM but not 2 microM significantly impaired the LTD(4)-induced Ca(2+) signal, indicating that the response involves a novel PKC isoform, such as delta or epsilon, but not alpha. LTD(4)-induced Ca(2+) signaling was significantly suppressed in cells pretreated with TPA for 15 min and was abolished when the pretreatment was prolonged to 2 h. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the reduction in the LTD(4)-induced calcium signal coincided with a reduction in the cellular content of PKCepsilon and, to a limited extent, PKCdelta. LTD(4)-induced Ca(2+) signaling was also markedly suppressed by microinjection of antibodies against PKCepsilon but not PKCdelta. These data suggest that PKCepsilon plays a unique role in regulation of the LTD(4)-dependent Ca(2+) signal in intestinal epithelial cells.
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12247.
  •  
12248.
  • Thomassen, Mads, et al. (författare)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Danish families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 47:4, s. 772-777
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A national study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Danish HBOC (Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer) families revealed a total number of 322 mutation positive families, 206 (64%) BRCA1 and 116 (36%) BRCA2 positive families from a population of 5.5 million inhabitants. Seven hundred and twenty six mutation positive individuals were identified: 402 female BRCAl carriers, 79 male BRCAl carriers, 213 female BRCA2 carriers, and 32 male BRCA2 carriers by April 2006. Most of the mutations were frame shift or nonsense mutations, while large genomic rearrangements were rare. Most mutations were only identified in one family. A few mutations were detected repeatedly. In BRCAl the most common mutations were: 2594delC in 32 families (16%), 3438G > T in 19 families (9%), 5382insC in 16 families (8%), 3829delT in 11 families (5%). In BRCA2 the most common mutations were: 6601delA in 13 families (11%), 1538del4 in 12 families (10%), 6714del4 in 10 families (9%). There was a tendency towards a higher frequency of BRCA2 mutations in West Denmark compared to East Denmark. The frequencies of specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were slightly different in the two regions. The mutations occurring in West Denmark have also been observed in other Scandinavian countries whereas the mutations occurring in East Denmark were more often reported from other European countries and the Baltic countries. The pattern of mutation distributions are comparable with observations from other Scandinavian and European studies and indicate that the Danish BRCAl and BRCA2 mutations are a mixture of Scandinavian mutations and other European mutations including two of the Ashkenazi mutations. Even though a tendency towards founder mutations was observed most mutations were only detected once. Based on these observations we recommend that the mutation screening strategy of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Danish HBOC families comprises full screening of both genes including analysis for large genomic rearrangements.
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12249.
  • Thomasson, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression pattern of the epidermal growth factor receptor family and LRIG1 in renal cell carcinoma
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Research Notes. - 1756-0500 .- 1756-0500. ; 5:216, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong>: Previous studies have revealed altered expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-family members and their endogenous inhibitor leucine-rich and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we analyzed the gene expression levels of EGFR-family members and LRIG1, and their possible associations with clinical parameters in various types of RCC, individually.</p><p><strong>METHODS</strong>: Gene expression levels of EGFR-family members and LRIG1 were analyzed in 104 RCC samples, including 81 clear cell RCC (ccRCC), 15 papillary RCC (pRCC), and 7 chromophobe RCC (chRCC) by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Associations between gene expression levels and clinical data, including tumor grade, stage, and patient survival were statistically assessed.</p><p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: Compared to kidney cortex, EGFR was up-regulated in ccRCC and pRCC, LRIG1 and ERBB2 were down-regulated in ccRCC, and ERBB4 was strongly down-regulated in all RCC types. ERBB3 expression did not differ between RCC types or between RCC and the kidney cortex. The expression of the analyzed genes did not correlate with patient outcome.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong>: This study revealed that the previously described up-regulation of EGFR and down-regulation of ERBB4 occurred in all analyzed RCC types, whereas down-regulation of ERBB2 and LRIG1 was only present in ccRCC. These observations illustrate the need to evaluate the different RCC types individually when analyzing molecules of interest and potential biological markers.</p>
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12250.
  • Thompson, D, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105. ; 94:18, s. 1358-1365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Germline BRCA1 mutations confer a substantial lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but whether cancer at other sites is increased is less clear. To evaluate the risks of other cancers in BRCA1 mutation carriers, we conducted a cohort study of 11 847 individuals from 699 families segregating a BRCA1 mutation that were ascertained in 30 centers across Europe and North America. Methods: The observed cancer incidence was compared with the expected cancer incidence based on population cancer rates. Relative risks (RRs) of each cancer type in BRCA1 carriers relative to risks for the general population were estimated by weighting individuals according to their estimated probability of being a mutation carrier. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: BRCA1 mutation carriers were at a statistically significantly increased risk for several cancers, including pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26 to 4.06, P = .004) and cancer of the uterine body and cervix (uterine body RR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.69 to 4.16, P<.001; cervix RR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.26 to 6.10, P<.001). There was some evidence of an elevated risk of prostate cancer in mutation carriers younger than 65 years old (RR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.29, P = .05) but not in those 65 years old or older (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.33, P = .45). Overall, increases in the risk for cancer at sites other than the breast or ovary were small and evident in women (RR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.93 to 2.75, P = .001) but not in men (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.12, P = .58). Conclusions: In carriers of BRCA1 mutations, the overall increased risk of cancer at sites other than breast and ovary is small and is observed in women but generally not in men. BRCA1 mutations may confer increased risks of other abdominal cancers in women and increased risks of pancreatic cancer in men and women.
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