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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(1995-1999)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (1995-1999)

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61.
  • Eriksson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Increased cancer incidence in physicians, dentists, and health care workers
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Oncology Reports. - D.A. Spandidos. - 1021-335X. ; 5:6, s. 1413-1418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some earlier reports have indicated increased incidence or mortality of specific tumor types in various health care professions. In this study we have evaluated cancer incidence in physicians, dentists, and other health care workers using the Swedish Cancer Environment Register (CER), which was formed by record-linkage between the 1970 census on current occupation and Cancer Register incidence data in 1971-84. In all three profession categories studied an increased risk was found, as well for all malignant tumors combined, as for specific tumor types regarding the different occupations. Possible etiological factors responsible for these risks are discussed.
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62.
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63.
  • Ohlsson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Follow-up after curative surgery for colorectal carcinoma - Randomized comparison with no follow-up
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. - Springer. - 0012-3706. ; 38:6, s. 619-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: This study investigated the value of intense follow-up compared with no follow-up after curative surgery of cancer in the colon or rectum. METHODS: One hundred seven patients were randomized to no follow-up (control group; n=54) or intense follow-up (follow-up group; n=53) after surgery and early postoperative colonoscopy. Patients in the follow-up group were followed at frequent intervals with clinical examination, rigid proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, computed tomography of the pelvis (in patients operated with abdominoperineal resection), pulmonary x-ray, liver function tests, and determinations of carcinoembryonic antigen and fecal hemoglobin. Follow-up ranged from 5.5 to 8.8 years after primary surgery. RESULTS: Tumor recurred in 18 patients (33 percent) in the control group and in 17 patients (32 percent) in the follow-up group. Reresection with curative intent was performed in three patients in the control group and in five patients (four of whom were asymptomatic) in the follow-up group. In the follow-up group two asymptomatic patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels were disease-free three and five and one-half years after reresection and were the only patients apparently cured by reresection. No patient underwent surgery for metastatic disease in the liver or lungs. Symptomatic metachronous carcinoma was detected in one patient (control group) after three years. Five-year survival rate was 67 percent in the control group and 75 percent in the follow-up group (P >0.05); the corresponding cancer-specific survival rates were 71 percent and 78 percent, respectively. CONCLUSION: Intense follow-up after resection of colorectal cancer did not prolong survival in this study.
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64.
  • Bäck, Sven (författare)
  • Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy
  • 1998
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Gel-dosmätningar för kontroll av strålbehandling av cancertumörer När en patient strålbehandlas avser man att bestråla sjuka områden i kroppen. Det är dock omöjligt att göra detta utan att därmed även till viss del stråla på omkringliggande organ och komplikationer kan då uppstå. För att minimera dessa bieffekter och optimera behandlingen används ofta en så kallad dosplanering. Med hjälp av datorer kan man simulera hur patienten ser ut och planera energi, riktning och utsträckning på strålningen som träffar kroppen. Datorn räknar sedan ut vilken absorberad dos olika organ och områden får vid vissa inställningar. Den absorberade dosen är samma sak som den energi som stannar i kroppen per viktenhet (joule per kilogram). Man vill alltså maximera den absorberade dosen i tumören och minimera den i normalvävnad. Dosberäkningar kan vara svåra att kontrollera, särskilt i en patientlik situation. Man mäter ofta den absorberade dosen med olika detektorer i stora vattenbehållare. I denna avhandling har den nya tekniken med dosimetergel använts för att mäta den absorberade dosen i tre dimensioner. Gelen består av en gelningskomponent, som gelatin, och en strålkänslig lösning. När man strålar på gelen ändras den kemiska sammansättningen i proportion till dosen och genom att detektera denna förändring kan man alltså mäta dosen. I vårt fall använder man magnetisk resonans (MR) för att detektera förändringen och genom att man därmed får en bild av gelen i valfri riktning kan man läsa ut dosen inuti en volym. I denna avhandling har en ny metod för direkt jämförelse av dosplanering och gel-dosmätningar utvecklats. Metoden har använts i kliniskt relevanta situationer. Avhandlingen visar på att dosimetergel och MR är en mycket lovande teknik som har förbättrats främst genom optimeringar av MR utvärderingen och användande av ny utrustning.
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65.
  • Wiklund, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of cancer incidence
  • 1998
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In this paper a method for predicting future number of cancer diagnoses is derived. The method is based on estimation of the cumulative hazard of cancer diagnosis and cumulative hazard of population mortality. The estimation of cancer hazard is done non-parametrically, while the population death hazard is assumed to follow the Gompertz-Makeham distribution. The prediction is based on the assumption that cancer incidence and population mortality in the prediction intervals are derived. Also, prediction intervals, based on non-parametric bootstrap, are presented. The method is applied to predict number of colon cancer diagnoses among females in the northern part of Sweden. It has shown to detect and adjust for changes in population age structure, and to provide good predictions in situation where the cancer incidence and population mortality are stable during the prediction period.</p>
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66.
  • Koul, Anjila, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of TP53 gene mutations in uterine corpus cancer with short follow-up
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - Academic Press. - 1095-6859. ; 67:3, s. 295-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The involvement of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in uterine corpus cancer was investigated by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and sequence analysis of its exons 4 to 10. Mutations were found in 12 (18.5%) of 65 cases. Ten of these 12 were single-base substitutions (8 missense and 2 nonsense mutations), whereas 2 were frame-shifting mutations. TP53 gene mutations correlated significantly with advanced surgical stage of disease (P = 0.006) and unfavorable tumor histology types (P = 0.003), whereas the association to myometrial wall invasion did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.054). TP53 gene mutations also correlated significantly with allelic loss at TP53 locus (P = 0.024), absence of estrogen (P = 0.045) and progesterone receptors (P = 0.001), DNA nondiploidy (P = 0.002), and high S-phase fraction values (P = 0.002). Our results suggest that inactivation of the TP53 checkpoint function is associated with disease transition into a stage of rapid progression and spread.
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67.
  • Johansson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor blood flow and the cytotoxic effects of estramustine and its constituents in a rat glioma model.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Neurosurgery. - 0148-396X .- 1524-4040. ; 41:1, s. 237-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> Estramustine (EaM) is a conjugate of nor-nitrogen mustard (NNM) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) that has cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects on experimental malignant glioma. Its mechanism of action is only partly understood. To further investigate the mechanism in vivo, the effects on tumor blood flow (TBF) and tumor growth were analyzed.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> TBF was measured by radioactive microspheres, and tumor growth was measured by weight. Apoptosis was evaluated by in situ end labeling and gel electrophoresis. The effects of the constituents NNM and E2 were also evaluated.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> EaM increased TBF to 153.8 ml/100 g/min after 3 days and to 153.9 ml/100 g/min after 10 days of treatment, compared with 94.0 ml/100 g/min in untreated controls. Cerebral blood flow did not change after EaM treatment. NNM increased TBF but also showed a tendency to increase cerebral blood flow. E2 increased TBF, whereas cerebral blood flow was unchanged. EaM resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor weight from 230 mg in untreated animals to 146 mg after 3 days of treatment. EaM induced an early transient fragmentation of deoxyribonucleic acid in glioma but not in the normal brain. Neither NNM nor E2 affected tumor weight.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> EaM increases TBF in the BT4C rat glioma model with a concomitant rapid antitumoral effect. The increase in TBF could partially be induced by an estrogen-like action of EaM, but the rapid cytotoxic effect of the drug is obviously attributed to the intact EaM compound. This cytotoxic effect might be attributable to the induction of programmed cell death.</p>
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68.
  • Andersson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Hydrolysis of galactolipids by human pancreatic lipolytic enzymes and duodenal contents
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Lipid Research. - American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 1539-7262. ; 36:6, s. 1392-1400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) are major lipids in vegetable food. Their digestion and absorption are unknown. This study examines the hydrolysis of galactolipids in vitro with human duodenal contents, pancreatic juice, and purified human pancreatic lipases. Galactolipids were incubated with human duodenal contents, pancreatic juice, pure pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), and colipase-dependent lipase with colipase (Lip-Col). Hydrolysis was estimated as release of free fatty acids and by the use of [3H]galactose or [3H]fatty acid-labeled DGDG. Pancreatic juice and duodenal contents hydrolyzed DGDG to fatty acids, digalactosylmonoacylglycerol (DGMG) and water-soluble galactose-containing compounds. The hydrolysis of DGDG was bile salt-dependent and had a pH optimum at 6.5-7.5. Human pancreatic juice released fatty acids from MGDG, DGDG, and SQDG. Purified CEL hydrolyzed all three substrates; the hydrolysis rate was MGDG > SQDG > DGDG. Pure Lip-Col had activity toward MGDG but had little activity against DGDG. Separation of pancreatic juice by Sephadex G100 gel filtration chromatography revealed two peaks with galactolipase activity that coincided with CEL (molecular mass 100 kD) and lipase (molecular mass 50 kD) peaks. In contrast to pure Lip-Col enzymes of the latter peak were as active against DGDG as against MGDG. Thus, DGDG is hydrolyzed both by CEL and by a pancreatic enzyme(s) with a molecular mass of 40-50 kD to fatty acids and lyso DGDG. MGDG, DGDG, and SQDG are all hydrolyzed by human pancreatic juice. Pure CEL hydrolyzed all three substrates.
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69.
  • Hellquist, H. B., et al. (författare)
  • Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in salivary gland neoplasms is unrelated to the expression of mRNA for natural killer cell stimulatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Virchows Archiv. - New York, USA : Springer. - 0945-6317. ; 429:2-3, s. 149-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Certain cytokines are involved in the generation of natural killer (NK) cells and participate in the regulation of the proto-oncogene bcl-2. We aimed to study the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5, the composition of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and the expression of bcl-2 in 14 benign and malignant human parotid tumours. T IL were predominantly composed of T lymphocytes and NK cells. We found evidence for the homing of T cells, and for generation of NK cells in the vicinity of the tumours. mRNA for IL-2 and IL-12, were identified but IL-4 mRNA was not found. The cytokine profiles and the composition of TIL of the two tumour categories were indistinguishable, suggesting that these host-response variables do not explain the differences in biological behaviour of these particular tumours. The results support a shift towards Th 1 (T helper 1) cells and interferon-gamma production, and that IL-12 also in vivo may play an important role in the regulatory interaction between innate resistance and adaptive immunity in tumour diseases. Most infiltrating lymphocytes showed strong expression of bcl-2; an interesting observation with regard to lymphocytic apoptosis in neoplastic diseases. The immunoreactivity for the bcl-2 protein varied considerably between and within tumours, and almost all benign tumours showed strong bcl-2 positively whereas several of the malignant tumours showed weak or absent staining. The variable expression of bcl-2 protein suggests a different susceptibility of tumour cells to apoptosis. The results also indicate that bcl-2 cannot pla a major role as protective agent in the specific apoptotic pathway induced by NK cells.
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70.
  • Jahnson, S., et al. (författare)
  • p53 and Rb immunostaining in locally advanced bladder cancer : relation to prognostic variables and predictive value for the local response to radical radiotherapy
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Basel, Switzerland : S. Karger. - 0302-2838. ; 28:2, s. 135-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between known prognostic variables and altered immunostaining for the nuclear proteins retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 was studied in a homogeneous series of locally advanced bladder cancer. The predictive value of this immunostaining for the local response to intended radical radiotherapy was investigated. Among 262 patients treated with intended radical radiotherapy between 1967 and 1986, a total of 154 patients were evaluable with respect to local response to treatment. The paraffin-embedded specimen from the tumour prior to irradiation was immunostained with the monoclonal antibodies PMG3-245 for Rb and 1801 for p53 nuclear proteins after heating in a microwave oven for 40 min at 650 W. An altered expression of Rb and p53 was observed in 18 and 42% of the tumours, respectively. p53 overexpression was associated with higher tumour grade. However, the results of the p53 and Rb immunostaining procedures had no predictive value for tumor response to radiation treatment, local control or cancer-specific mortality.
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