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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(2005-2009)"

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  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours : increased risk associated with use for ≥10 years
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - London : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 64:9, s. 626-632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AIM: To evaluate brain tumour risk among long-term users of cellular telephones. METHODS: Two cohort studies and 16 case-control studies on this topic were identified. Data were scrutinised for use of mobile phone for &gt; or =10 years and ipsilateral exposure if presented. RESULTS: The cohort study was of limited value due to methodological shortcomings in the study. Of the 16 case-control studies, 11 gave results for &gt; or =10 years' use or latency period. Most of these results were based on low numbers. An association with acoustic neuroma was found in four studies in the group with at least 10 years' use of a mobile phone. No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Six studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased odd ratios (OR), especially for ipsilateral exposure. In a meta-analysis, ipsilateral cell phone use for acoustic neuroma was OR = 2.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.3) and OR = 2.0, (1.2 to 3.4) for glioma using a tumour latency period of &gt; or =10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for &gt; or =10 years give a consistent pattern of increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.</p>
  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oncology. - 1019-6439. ; 32:5, s. 1097-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We evaluated long-term use of mobile phones and the risk for brain tumours in case-control studies published so far on this issue. We identified ten studies on glioma and meta-analysis yielded OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1. Latency period of &gt; or =10-years gave OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 based on six studies, for ipsilateral use (same side as tumour) OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 (four studies), but contralateral use did not increase the risk significantly, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-2.0. Meta-analysis of nine studies on acoustic neuroma gave OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1 increasing to OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8 using &gt; or =10-years latency period (four studies). Ipsilateral use gave OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3 and contra-lateral OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7-2.2 in the &gt; or =10-years latency period group (three studies). Seven studies gave results for meningioma yielding overall OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-0.99. Using &gt; or =10-years latency period OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8 was calculated (four studies) increasing to OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.99-3.1 for ipsilateral use and OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-3.1 for contralateral use (two studies). We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using &gt; or =10-years latency period.</p>
  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Surgical Oncology. - 1477-7819 .- 1477-7819. ; 4:74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. METHODS: Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1-2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3-2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2-1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1-1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using &gt; 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.</p>
  • Hedelin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of phytoestrogens, estrogen receptor-beta polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - Wiley-Liss. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 66:14, s. 1512-1520
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: The causes of prostate cancer are poorly understood, but genetic factors may be more important than for many other malignancies, and dietary phytoestrogens may be protective. Because phytoestrogens bind tightly to the estrogen receptor-beta, we conducted an epidemiologic investigation of synergistic effects between phytoestrogen intake and estrogen receptor-beta gene polymorphisms. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study in Sweden. All participants reported their phytoestrogen intake and donated a blood sample. We identified four haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) and genotyped these htSNPs in 1314 prostate cancer patients and 782 controls. Odds ratios were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Interactions between phytoestrogen intake and estrogen receptor-beta SNPs on prostate cancer risk were evaluated considering both multiplicative and additive effect scales. RESULTS: We found a significant multiplicative interaction (P = 0.04) between dietary intake of phytoestrogens and a promoter SNP in the estrogen receptor-beta gene (rs 2987983-13950), but not with any of the three other htSNPs (P = 0.11, 0.69, 0.85). Among carriers of the variant promoter alleles, we found strong inverse associations with increasing intake of total phytoestrogens (odds ratio for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.43; P for trend &lt;0.001), isoflavonoids (odds ratio = 0.63; P for trend = 0.05), and coumestrol (odds ratio = 0.57; P for trend = 0.003). We found no association between phytoestrogens and prostate cancer among carriers homozygous for the wild-type allele (TT). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that high intake of phytoestrogens substantially reduce prostate cancer risk among men with specific polymorphic variation in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor-beta gene.</p>
  • Hedelin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer : the cancer prostate Sweden study (Sweden)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 17:2, s. 169-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: Based on evidence that phytoestrogens may protect against prostate cancer, we evaluated the associations between serum enterolactone concentration or dietary phytoestrogen intake and risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: In our Swedish population-based case-control study, questionnaire-data were available for 1,499 prostate cancer cases and 1,130 controls, with serum enterolactone levels in a sub-group of 209 cases and 214 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with risk of prostate cancer. RESULTS: High intake of food items rich in phytoestrogens was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of intake was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57-0.95; p-value for trend: 0.01). In contrast, we found no association between dietary intake of total or individual lignans or isoflavonoids and risk of prostate cancer. Intermediate serum levels of enterolactone were associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The ORs comparing increasing quartiles of serum enterolactone concentration to the lowest quartile were, respectively, 0.28 (95% CI: 0.15-0.55), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35-1.14) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that certain foods high in phytoestrogens are associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer.</p>
  • Hedenus, Michael, 1945- (författare)
  • Clinical impact of epoetins in the treatment of anemia with special emphasis on patients with lymphoid malignancies. dosing, iron supplementation and safety
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The aim of this thesis was to determine the relevant dose of arbepoetin-alfa (DA) in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) and chemotherapy induced anemia (CIA), to study the clinical impact of intravenous (IV) iron supplementation combined with epoetin beta treatment, to identify factors that might predict hemoglobin (Hb) response to treatment with epoetins and to investigate safety of DA.</p><p>A dose-finding phase II study was able to assess a reasonable DA dose of 2.25 μg/kg once weekly for the treatment of CIA in patients with LPD. Dose-response trends were observed for the different dose cohorts although not statistically significant for any of the endpoints. However a significantly higher proportion of patients achieved Hb response (increase ≥2 g/dL) in the combined DA groups than in placebo (P<0.001).</p><p>A larger pivotal phase II trial was performed in a similar setting o confirm that the dose 2.25μg/kg once weekly was appropriate and safe. The proportion of patients achieving Hb response was significantly higher in the DA group (60%) than in the placebo group (18%) (P<0,001) and resulted in higher mean changes in Hb than placebo from baseline, 2.66 g/dl versus 0.69 /dl. Also a significantly lower proportion of patients in the DA group (31%) received RBC tranfusions than in the placebo group (48%). The short-term safety of DA with the tested dose was confirmed. The efficacy of DA was consistent for all end points independent of malignancy type or baseline endogenous erythropoietin serum levels.</p><p>The correction of moderate anemia in truly iron repleted patients with clinically stable LPD not receiving hemotherapy or RBC transfusions with epoetin beta treatment, with or without IV iron treatment was studied in an open label randomized trial. Also the impact on iron kinetics was assessed. The mean change in Hb concentration from baseline to end of treatment (EOT ) was 2.91 versus 1.50 g/dL respectively (P<0.0001). There was a significant (P<0.0001) difference in mean Hb at EOT between the iron and no-iron groups (13.0 g/dL versus 11.8 g/dL). Hb response was achieved by significantly more patients in the iron group (P=0.0012)than in the no-iron group (93% versus 53%) and the median time to achieve a Hb response was 6 weeks in the iron group compared with 12 weeks in the no-iron group. The mean weekly epoetin dose per patient was statistically significant lower in the iron group at week 13 (P =0.029) and at least 25% lower at EOT.</p><p>To investigate the long-term safety of DA in cancer patients with CIA four previously published double blind, randomized placebo-controlled phase II -III studies were analysed (n = 1.129). Median durations of progression-free survival and overall survival was comparable between DA and placebo for lung cancer (median follow up 15.8 months), for LPD (median follow up 32.6 months) and in the pooled population (follow up 4 months).</p>
  • Hoff, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • In the shadow of bad news - views of patients with acute leukaemia, myeloma or lung cancer about information, from diagnosis to cure or death
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Palliative Care. - 1472-684X .- 1472-684X. ; 6, s. 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published about giving and receiving bad messages. However, only a few of them have followed the patients all the way through a disease as is done in this study. Many studies have been written about patients' coping strategies. In this study we will keep within the bounds of coping through information only. The aim of the study is to investigate patients' views of information during the trajectory of their disease, whether their reactions differ from each other and whether they differ in different phases of the disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with malignant haematological diseases or lung cancer were followed with interviews from diagnosis to recovery or into the terminal phase or at most for two years. The method is qualitative, using semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Orebro University Hospital or the patient's home. RESULTS: All patients described themselves as well informed from the start but in later phases of their disease some of them came to express a great uncertainty about the progressing disease and about the approaching death. Most of them, regardless of whether they had a haematological malignancy or lung cancer, expressed a wish to be well informed all through the disease and even when the messages were bad. Different strategies for coping with information, however, affected how they then dealt with the information received. Four such coping strategies were found: 1) Information-dependent and accepting; 2) Information-dependent but denying; 3) Medically informed and accepting; 4) Medically informed but denying. CONCLUSION: To several patients there was an unmet need for information about the progressing disease and the approaching death. To optimize the care of these patients it seems important that the physician is aware of patients' need for information even when the news is bad. Knowing the patient's information strategy could probably function as a key for the physician to communicate with patients on these matters.</p>
  • Holmberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic markers under watchful waiting and radical prostatectomy
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. - Elsevier. - 0889-8588 .- 1558-1977. ; 20:4, s. 845-855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A suitable setting to analyze factors that determine prognosis or treatment response in prostate cancer is an unbiased comparison of radical prostatectomy and watchful waiting as in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Trial number 4. In our previous presentation of 10-year results, we studied Gleason score, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, and age at diagnosis as modifiers of the effect of radical prostatectomy on survival. Because overall prognostic information obtained by these parameters or by tumor stage was not provided in our publication, we now present these data in the two study arms separately.</p>
  • Hosseini, Abolfazl, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced formation of nitric oxide in bladder carcinoma in situ and in BCG treated bladder cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nitric oxide. - Orlando, Fla. : Academic Press. - 1089-8603 .- 1089-8611. ; 15:4, s. 337-343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of the study was to analyze endogenous nitric oxide (NO) formation and NO-synthase (NOS) gene expression in the urinary bladder from patients with urinary bladder cancer and to investigate the relationship between local NO formation, treatment with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and clinical stage in bladder cancer patients. One hundred and three patients with bladder cancer were studied. Endogenous formation of NO was measured in 72 patients, including 6 patients with BCG treated bladder cancer and 6 tumor free control subjects. iNOS expression was analyzed at transcriptional and protein level in biopsies from 31 patients with bladder cancer by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot (WB), respectively. Three patients in this group had received BCG treatment. Eight biopsies from normal bladder served as control for PCR and WB analysis. Patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) had higher iNOS expression (p&lt;0.01) and NO formation (p&lt;0.01) than control subjects and patients with papillary tumors without concomitant CIS. Markedly increased iNOS expression (p&lt;0.05) and NO formation (p&lt;0.001) were also found in patients treated with BCG as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, the presence of elevated NO concentration and iNOS expression in the urinary bladder from BCG treated patients and patients with CIS further supports the notion that NO may be an important factor in bladder cancer biology and that the BCG effect on superficial bladder cancer may partly be due to stimulation of local NO formation.</p>
  • Iversen, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Bicalutamide 150 mg in addition to standard care for patients with early non-metastatic prostate cancer : updated results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Period Group-6 Study after a median follow-up period of 7.1 years
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 40:6, s. 441-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: The Early Prostate Cancer (EPC) programme is evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide following standard care (radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting) in patients with localized (T1-2, N0/Nx) or locally advanced (T3-4, any N; or any T, N + ) non-metastatic prostate cancer. Herein we report the latest findings after a median follow-up period of 7.1 years from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG)-6 study, one of three trials in the EPC programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1218 patients were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either bicalutamide 150 mg/day (n=607) or placebo (n=611) following standard care; 81.4% were followed conservatively (watchful waiting). The primary endpoints were objective progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In patients with localized disease there was no significant difference in PFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85; 95% CI 0.69-1.06; p=0.15] and a trend towards decreased OS with bicalutamide plus standard care compared with standard care alone (HR 1.23; 95% CI 0.96-1.58; p=0.11). In patients with locally advanced disease, bicalutamide significantly improved PFS, reducing the risk of progression by 53% compared with standard care alone (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.37-0.59; p&lt;0.001). The median time to progression was 8.8 years for bicalutamide plus standard care and 7.1 years for standard care alone. There was a significant improvement in OS with bicalutamide plus standard care, with a reduction in the risk of death of 35% versus standard care alone (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.50-0.85; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: This analysis of the SPCG-6 study showed that bicalutamide plus standard care offers significant PFS and OS benefits for patients with locally advanced disease, but not for those with localized disease.</p>
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