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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(2010-2014)"

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  • Almqvist, Erik G., et al. (författare)
  • Factors influencing insulin sensitivity in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 72:2, s. 92-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to investigate lipid and glucose metabolism in mild PHPT, and to identify whether insulin sensitivity correlates with circulating levels of adiponectin, SHBG, and osteocalcin before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Materials and methods. Forty-five patients with PHPT were examined before and 1 year after PTX. Circulating levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose, adiponectin, SHBG, osteocalcin, and erythropoietin were measured. Results. At baseline, the mean serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were above the upper reference limit or in the upper normal range, and insulin sensitivity was reduced as assessed using the HOMA index. One year after parathyroidectomy, serum lipids as well as HOMA index and erythropoietin were unchanged while adiponectin had increased (p < 0.05), and SHBG and osteocalcin had decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). HOMA index correlated negatively with circulating levels of adiponectin, SHBG and osteocalcin. In multiple regression analysis SHBG was the most important predictor of insulin sensitivity, both pre- and postoperatively. Conclusion. Untreated mild PHPT is associated with a moderate derangement of lipid and glucose metabolism. As previously shown in population-based cohorts, insulin sensitivity is positively associated with circulating concentrations of adiponectin, SHBG and osteocalcin. One year after PTX, the mean level of adiponectin was increased, but the levels of SHBG and osteocalcin had decreased and the levels of serum lipids and the insulin sensitivity remained unchanged as compared with baseline.
  • Zamora-Ros, R, et al. (författare)
  • Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 111:9, s. 1870-1880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35-70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases.Results:During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5-Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC.Conclusions:Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 14 August 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.459 www.bjcancer.com.
  • Boman, Krister K, et al. (författare)
  • Disability, body image and sports/physical activity in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumors: population-based outcomes from a cohort study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of neuro-oncology. - 1573-7373. ; 112:1, s. 99-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Childhood CNS tumor survivors risk health and functional impairments that threaten normal psychological development and self-perception. This study investigated the extent to which health and functional ability predict adult survivors' body image (BI) and self-confidence regarding sports and physical activity. The study cohort covered 708 eligible ≥18 year old CNS tumor survivors, and data from 528 (75 %) were analyzed. Disability was estimated using the Health Utilities Index™ Mark2/3, a multidimensional self-report instrument. Physical self-confidence in terms of BI and sports/physical activity-related self-confidence (SPAS) were assessed using the BI and the Sports/Athletics modules of a standardized self-report assessment scale. In adjusted regression models, global health and functional status (GHFS) predicted BI (B = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.69-1.19) and SPAS (B = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.55-1.04). Emotion and pain, and to a lesser degree cognition, speech and vision disability, were associated with poorer BI and SPAS. Gender, sub-diagnosis, and time since diagnosis influenced the relationship between health status and physical self-confidence outcomes. Females had poorer GHFS, BI and SPAS than males. Decreased health and functional ability following childhood CNS cancer intrudes on physical self-confidence, with females being at heightened risk for both disability and negative self-confidence. Identified disability and gender-related risk calls for a follow-up plan that integrates treatment of psychological sequelae in lifetime monitoring of childhood CNS tumor survivors to restore and protect self-image and self-confidence, essential mental health correlates. An expanded plan should recognize the need for such services, optimizing life-long quality of survival for CNS tumor survivors.
  • Montelius, Mikael, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Tumour size measurement in a mouse model using high resolution MRI.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC medical imaging. - 1471-2342. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Animal models are frequently used to assess new treatment methods in cancer research. MRI offers a non-invasive in vivo monitoring of tumour tissue and thus allows longitudinal measurements of treatment effects, without the need for large cohorts of animals. Tumour size is an important biomarker of the disease development, but to our knowledge, MRI based size measurements have not yet been verified for small tumours (102-101g). The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of MRI based tumour size measurements in small tumours on mice. METHODS: 2D and 3D T2-weighted RARE images of tumour bearing mice were acquired in vivo using a 7 T dedicated animal MR system. For the 3D images the acquired image resolution was varied. The images were exported to a PC workstation where the tumour mass was determined assuming a density of 1 g/cm3, using an in-house developed tool for segmentation and delineation. The resulting data were compared to the weight of the resected tumours after sacrifice of the animal using regression analysis. RESULTS: Strong correlations were demonstrated between MRI-and necropsy determined masses. In general, 3D acquisition was not a prerequisite for high accuracy. However, it was slightly more accurate than 2D when small (<0.2 g) tumours were assessed for inter-and intraobserver variation. In 3D images, the voxel sizes could be increased from 1603um3 to 2403um3 without affecting the results significantly, thus reducing acquisition time substantially. CONCLUSIONS: 2D MRI was sufficient for accurate tumour size measurement, except for small tumours (<0.2g) where 3D acquisition was necessary to reduce interobserver variation. Acquisition times between 15 and 50 minutes, depending on tumour size, were sufficient for accurate tumour volume measurement. Hence, it is possible to include further MR investigations of the tumour, such as tissue perfusion, diffusion or metabolic composition in the same MR session.
  • Lindskog Bergström, Cecilia, 1981- (författare)
  • Tissue Microarrays for Analysis of Expression Patterns
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Proteins are essential building blocks in every living cell, and since the complete human genome was sequenced in 2004, researchers have attempted to map the human proteome, which is the functional representation of the genome. One such initiative is the Human Protein Atlas programme (HPA), which generates monospecific antibodies towards all human proteins and uses these for high-throughput tissue profiling on tissue microarrays (TMAs). The results are publically available at the website www.proteinatlas.org.</p><p>In this thesis, TMAs were used for analysis of expression patterns in various research areas. Different search queries in the HPA were tested and evaluated, and a number of potential biomarkers were identified, e.g. proteins exclusively expressed in islets of Langerhans, but not in exocrine glandular cells or other abdominal organs close to pancreas. The identified candidates were further analyzed on TMAs with pancreatic tissues from normal and diabetic individuals, and colocalization studies with insulin and glucagon revealed that several of the investigated proteins (DGCR2, GBF1, GPR44 and SerpinB10) appeared to be beta cell specific. Moreover, a set of proteins differentially expressed in lung cancer stroma was further analyzed on a clinical lung cancer cohort in the TMA format, and one protein (CD99) was significantly associated with survival. In addition, TMAs with tissue samples from different species were generated, e.g. for mapping of influenza virus attachment in various human and avian tissues. The results showed that the gull influenza virus H16N3 attached to human respiratory tract and eye, suggesting possible transmission of the virus between gull and human. TMAs were also used for analysis of protein expression differences between humans and other primates, and two proteins (TCF3 and SATB2) proved to be significantly differentially expressed on the human lineage at both the protein level and the RNA level.  </p><p>In conclusion, this thesis exemplifies the potential of the TMA technology, which can be used for analysis of expression patterns in a large variety of research fields, such as biomarker discovery, influenza virus research or further understanding of human evolution.</p>
  • Gatto, Francesco, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity is associated with a unique metabolic network in clear cell renal carcinoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 111:9, s. E866-E875
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several common oncogenic pathways have been implicated in the emergence of renowned metabolic features in cancer, which in turn are deemed essential for cancer proliferation and survival. However, the extent to which different cancers coordinate their metabolism to meet these requirements is largely unexplored. Here we show that even in the heterogeneity of metabolic regulation a distinct signature encompassed most cancers. On the other hand, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) strongly deviated in terms of metabolic gene expression changes, showing widespread down-regulation. We observed a metabolic shift that associates differential regulation of enzymes in one-carbon metabolism with high tumor stage and poor clinical outcome. A significant yet limited set of metabolic genes that explained the partial divergence of ccRCC metabolism correlated with loss of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) and a potential activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further network-dependent analyses revealed unique defects in nucleotide, one-carbon, and glycerophospholipid metabolism at the transcript and protein level, which contrasts findings in other tumors. Notably, this behavior is recapitulated by recurrent loss of heterozygosity in multiple metabolic genes adjacent to VHL. This study therefore shows how loss of heterozygosity, hallmarked by VHL deletion in ccRCC, may uniquely shape tumor metabolism.
  • Lundh, Marie Hoyer, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in health-related quality of life by occupational status among women diagnosed with breast cancer-a population-based cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology. - 1057-9249. ; 22:10, s. 2321-2331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo investigate whether longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among breast cancer patients vary by prediagnosis occupational status or postdiagnosis changes in working time. MethodsWe identified 1573 patients in the Breast Cancer Quality Register of Central Sweden and asked them to participate in a longitudinal questionnaire study. A total of n=841 women completed three questionnaires within a mean time of 4, 16, and 38months postdiagnosis. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine changes in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire subscales stratified by prediagnosis occupational status and postdiagnosis changes in working time. ResultsOver time, the proportion of employed women reporting good functioning increased more, and the proportion reporting a high level of symptoms decreased more compared with women on sick leave/disability pension and retirement pensioners (p&lt;0.001). The latter two also showed a worsening in several subscales (p&lt;0.05). Among employed women, more consistent improvements in role and social functioning were observed among those with an increase/no change in working time than among those who had decreased it or stopped working (p&lt;0.05). A decrease in the proportion reporting pain was observed among women with an increase/no change in working time compared with women with decreased working time, among whom the proportion reporting pain increased (p=0.008). ConclusionsBeing employed prediagnosis and resuming work to the same extent as prior to the breast cancer diagnosis are associated with consistent improvements in HRQoL. These results highlight the importance of interventions to improve HRQoL and policies to support return to work following diagnosis. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.
  • Mitra, S., et al. (författare)
  • Systems biology of cancer biomarker detection
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Biomarkers. - 1574-0153. ; 13:4, s. 201-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer systems-biology is an ever-growing area of research due to explosion of data; how to mine these data and extract useful information is the problem. To have an insight on carcinogenesis one need to systematically mine several resources, such as databases, microarray and next-generation sequences. This review encompasses management and analysis of cancer data, databases construction and data deposition, whole transcriptome and genome comparison, analysing results from high throughput experiments to uncover cellular pathways and molecular interactions, and the design of effective algorithms to identify potential biomarkers. Recent technical advances such as ChIP-on-chip, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq can be applied to get epigenetic information transformed into a high-throughput endeavour to which systems biology and bioinformatics are making significant inroads. The data from ENCODE and GENCODE projects available through UCSC genome browser can be considered as benchmark for comparison and meta-analysis. A pipeline for integrating next generation sequencing data, microarray data, and putting them together with the existing database is discussed. The understanding of cancer genomics is changing the way we approach cancer diagnosis and treatment. To give a better understanding of utilizing available resources' we have chosen oral cancer to show how and what kind of analysis can be done. This review is a computational genomic primer that provides a bird's eye view of computational and bioinformatics' tools currently available to perform integrated genomic and system biology analyses of several carcinoma.
  • Salander, Pär, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • The creation of hope in patients with lung cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Informa Healthcare. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 53:9, s. 1205-1211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is associated with biomedical and psychological symptoms as well as a generally poor prognosis. When healthcare staff communicate with lung cancer patients it is essential that they consider the patients' own views of the situation to avoid putting unnecessary strain upon the patients' shoulders. The purpose of the present study is to better understand how a group of patients with lung cancer reflects upon their new life situation after diagnosis and primary treatment. METHOD: Fifteen patients with non-small cell lung cancer were consecutively included and, where possible, repeatedly interviewed during the course of the disease process. The 29 interviews were conducted in a thematically structured narrative form that facilitated a dialog between the interviewer and the patient. The interviews covered experiences with health care, living an everyday life, and thoughts about the future. FINDINGS AND REFLECTIONS: By focusing on how the patients more or less preconsciously elaborated mentally with their vulnerable situation, it was possible to detect different mental manoeuvres that they used as a way of creating hope. The patients distanced themselves from their disease, relied on a feeling of a sound body, idealised treatment possibilities, relied on healthy behaviour, focused on a concrete project, found that they were better off than others, and took solace in the fact that there were patients who had successfully managed the disease. DISCUSSION: The patients were not passive victims in the face of their diagnosis, but were actively trying to find ways of looking at their despairing situation in a positive light. A creative process for psychological survival had thus been initiated by the patients. We suggest that acknowledging this process should be the starting point from which physicians can engage in hope work with their patients.</p>
  • Schleiermacher, Gudrun, et al. (författare)
  • Emergence of New ALK Mutations at Relapse of Neuroblastoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X. ; 32:25, s. 2727-2734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In neuroblastoma, the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase is activated by point mutations. We investigated the potential role of ALK mutations in neuroblastoma clonal evolution.
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