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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(2010-2014)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (2010-2014)

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  • Spetz, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of internal irradiation from 177Lu-octreotate on transcriptional expression in GOT1 midgut carcinoid in nude mice
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: SweRays Workshop, Malmö, Sweden, Aug 20-22.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Neuroendocrine (NE) tumors expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are often treated with 177Lu-octreotate. The treatment is highly successful in animal models, but low cure rates in clinical studies suggests optimization of treatment protocol is needed. Little is known about which cellular responses play a crucial role in neuroendocrine tumors after irradiation. It is therefore important to identify the effects of 177Lu-octreotate on biological functions for future optimization of treatment parameters and the identification of biomarkers predicting treatment response. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of GOT1 midgut carcinoid in nude mice following 177Lu-octreotate treatment. Methods: GOT1 bearing BALB/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 15 MBq 177Lu-octreotate and tumor size was measured twice a week using calipers. Animals were killed after 1, 3, 7 or 41 days and tumor samples excised and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was extracted from tumor samples and subjected to Illumina microarray expression analysis. Differential transcriptional profiles were identified by comparing treated and untreated tumor samples using Nexus Expression 3.0 software. Associated biological functions and biological pathways (according to Gene Ontology terms) were compared using Nexus Expression 3.0 and Ingenuity IPA. Results: The mean tumor volume was clearly reduced after 177Lu-octreotate treatment. Microarray analysis showed clear difference in regulation pattern between the time points. The analysis of associated biological functions revealed clear effect on cell death and survival, and cell cycle after 1, 3, and 7 days, while cellular movement and cellular development were clearly influenced after 41 days. Cellular growth and proliferation was also affected after 1 day but not at the other time points studied. Conclusions: : Analysis of the transcriptional regulation in GOT1 tumors in nude mice following 177Lu-octreotate treatment revealed responses in different cellular functions that were distinct for each time point. These findings indicate potential venues for increasing clinical effectiveness of midgut carcinoid therapy with 177Lu-octreotate.
  • Söderlund Strand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • High-Throughput Monitoring of Human Papillomavirus Type Distribution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 22:2, s. 242-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is a need for a rapid and cost-effective evaluation of the effects of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies. Sexually active adolescents are a preferred target group for monitoring, as effects on HPV prevalence would be measurable shortly after implementation of vaccination programs. Methods: The Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis testing program offers free Chlamydia trachomatis testing and reaches a majority of all adolescents in the population. We anonymized the 44,146 samples submitted for Chlamydia trachomatis testing in Southern Sweden during March to November 2008 and conducted HPV genotyping using PCR followed by mass spectrometry. Results: The HPV positivity peaked at 54.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 52.2-56.6] among 21-year-old women and at 15.0% (95% CI, 12.4-17.6) among 23-year-old men. The HPV positivity was 37.8% (95% CI, 37.3-38.3) for women and 11.2% (95% CI, 10.6-11.8) for men. The most prevalent types among women were HPV 16 (10.0%; 95% CI, 9.7-10.3) and HPV 51 (6.0%; 95% CI, 5.7-6.3) and, among men, HPV 16 (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4) and HPV 6 and HPV 51 (1.7%; 95% CI, 1.5-1.9). Conclusion: The high HPV prevalences seen in the Chlamydia trachomatis screening population enables monitoring of the HPV type distribution among sexually active adolescents at high precision. Impact: Effectiveness of HPV vaccination programs in terms of reducing HPV infections has been difficult to measure because of logistic constraints. We describe a system for high-throughput monitoring of HPV type-specific prevalences using samples from the Chlamydia trachomatis screening program. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(2); 242-50. (c) 2012 AACR.
  • Zhang, D., et al. (författare)
  • Galectin-3 gene silencing inhibits migration and invasion of human tongue cancer cells in vitro via downregulating beta-catenin
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. - 1671-4083. ; 34:1, s. 176-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a member of the carbohydrate-binding protein family that contributes to neoplastic transformation, tumor survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Gal-3 in human tongue cancer progression. Methods: Human tongue cancer cell lines (SCC-4 and CAL27) were transfected with a small-interfering RNA against Gal-3 (Gal-3-siRNA). The migration and invasion of the cells were examined using a scratch assay and BD BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber, respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of β-catenin, Akt/pAkt, GSK-3β/pGSK-3β, MMP-9 in the cells were measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: Transient silencing of Gal-3 gene for 48 h significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of both SCC-4 and CAL27 cells. Silencing of Gal-3 gene significantly decreased the protein level of β-catenin, leaving the mRNA level of β-catenin unaffected. Furthermore, silencing Gal-3 gene significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, and suppressed the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-9 in the cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Gal-3 mediates the migration and invasion of tongue cancer cells in vitro via regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation.
  • Petridou, Eleni Th., et al. (författare)
  • In vitro fertilization and risk of childhood leukemia in Greece and Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Blood & Cancer. - 1545-5009 .- 1545-5017. ; 58:6, s. 930-936
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Cancer risk in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate risk of leukemia and lymphoma following IVF using two nationwide datasets. Methods. The hospital-based case-control study in Greece derived from the National Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies (1996-2008, 814 leukemia and 277 lymphoma incident cases with their 1: 1 matched controls). The Swedish casecontrol study was nested in the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) (1995-2007, 520 leukemia and 71 lymphoma cases with their 5,200 and 710 matched controls) with ascertainment of incident cancer cases in the National Cancer Register. Study-specific and combined odds ratios (OR) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for possible risk factors. Results. Nationwide studies pointed to similar size excess risk of leukemia following IVF, but to a null association between IVF and lymphoma. The proportion of leukemia cases conceived through IVF was 3% in Greece and 2.7% in Sweden; prevalence of IVF in matched controls was 1.8% and 1.6%, respectively. In combined multivariable analyses, the increased risk of leukemia was confined to age below 3.8 years (OR 2.21; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.27-3.85) and to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.062.95) with no sufficient evidence of excess risk for other leukemias (OR 1.34; 95% CI: 0.38-4.69). Following IVF, OR for ALL was 2.58 (95% CI: 1.37-4.84) before age 3.8 and 4.29 (95% CI: 1.4912.37) before age 2 years. Conclusions. IVF seems to be associated with increased risk of early onset ALL in the offspring. </p>
  • Kaltsas, Gregory, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of connective tissue growth factor and IGF1 in normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine cells and their clinico-pathological significance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - Uppsala : Uppsala University. - 1351-0088 .- 1479-6821. ; 18:1, s. 61-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and IGF1 are both expressed in a variety of tumours and are involved in tumourigenesis. However, information about their expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine (NE) cells and tumours is mainly limited, with the exception of midgut carcinoids where abundant CTGF expression has been demonstrated. Normal mucosa specimens from stomach and ileum, as well as tumour tissue specimens from gastric NE tumours (GNETs; n=58) and midgut NETs (n=38) were included. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the possible expression of CTGF and IGF1 in GI NE cells and tumours. The latter results were correlated with various clinico-biochemical and histopathological variables. CTGF was expressed in a proportion of NE cells of the normal GI mucosa but not in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, whereas IGF1 was undetectable. CTGF was absent in the foci of ECL cell hyperplasia, and in most of the poorly differentiated carcinomas, but present in some GNETs (mainly in type III ECL cell carcinoids (ECL-CCs)) and in all but one midgut NETs. CTGF correlated with tumour stage in well-differentiated GNETs and with size larger than 1  cm but only in the subgroup of type I ECL-CCs. IGF1 was detected in the foci of ECL cell hyperplasia and in all GI NETs. These findings suggest that both CTGF and IGF1 may be involved in the neoplastic transformation of GI NE cells, whereas IGF1 may play an important role even at early stage.</p>
  • Wedenberg, Mina, et al. (författare)
  • Analytical description of the LET dependence of cell survival using the repairable-conditionally repairable damage model
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation Research. - 0033-7587 .- 1938-5404. ; 174:4, s. 517-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In light-ion radiation therapy, both the dose and the local energy spectrum, which is often characterized with the linear energy transfer (LET), must be considered. In treatment optimization, it is advantageous to use a radiobiological model that analytically accounts for both dose and LET for the ion type of interest. With such a model the biological effect can also be estimated for dose and LET combinations for which there are no observations in the underlying experimental data. In this study, the repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) damage model was extended by expressing its parameters as functions of LET to provide a radiobiological model that accounts for both the dose and the LET for a given ion type and cell line. This LET-parameterized RCR model was fitted to published cell survival data for HSG and V79 cells irradiated with carbon ions and for T1 cells irradiated with helium ions. To test the robustness of the model, fittings to only a subset of the data were performed. Good agreement with the cell survival data was obtained, including survival data for LET values not used for model fitting, opening up the possibility of using the model in treatment planning for light ions.</p>
  • Lundh, Torbjörn, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • 2012
  • Patent (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A removable porous stent is disclosed, which can be placed in tubular structures. It can be placed at locations, which are unsuitable for permanent stents, like across important branches in the vasculature preferably in combination with anticoagulation. The walls of the stent are freely permeable for the blood flow. A temporary stent can be used during treatment of dissections with involvement of side branches. The dissected membrane is relocated to its original place and held in place by the stent until the healing process has reattached the membrane. At this point the stent will be removed. The removable stent can also be used as a carrier of chemotherapy and/or radiation to be placed in tubular structures for local treatment of cancer. The time for treatment is controlled and finished at removal. This approach will give the possibility to increase dosages and reduce side effects. The stent is formed by at least one continuous thread arranged in interconnected loops and having a reversible bind-off at one end of the tubular body, mechanically securing each loop at said end of the tubular body apart from a single releasable loop. This loop is preferably extended beyond the tubular structure of the stent enabling an initiation of the removal at a distance from the treatment site.
  • Sun, Aijun, 1973- (författare)
  • Radiolabeled acetate PET in oncology imaging studies on head and neck cancer, prostate cancer and normal distribution
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The use of positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging in oncology has grown rapidly in recent years. 2-[<sup>18</sup>F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most common tracer of PET, although drawbacks exist. Radiolabeled 1-[<sup>11</sup>C]-acetate (C-AC) is a simple probe for evaluation of perfusion, anabolism (lipogenesis) and catabolism (oxidative metabolism) in all living tissues. This study explored the potential of AC PET in head and neck cancer, benign and malignant lymph nodes in prostate cancer and normal distribution. </p> <p>In head and neck cancer, C-AC PET detected more primaries and lymph node metastases than FDG PET. The mean primary tumor volumes delineated by C-AC was 51% larger than that of FDG before radiotherapy (RT). Both FDG and C-AC PET tumor volumes must be carefully validated before used in clinical routine. Baseline tumor clearance rate (k<sub>mono)</sub> was higher in complete responders (CR) than that in partial responders (PR). k<sub>mono</sub> tended to correlate inversely with FDG SUV at baseline. Radiosensitive tumors might rely predominantly on oxidative metabolism for their biogenetic needs. k<sub>mono</sub> increased in PR during RT. The potential reversibility of impaired k<sub>mono</sub> in radioresistant tumors imply that treatment targeting the intermediary metabolism might improve the outcome. Tumor relative perfusion index (rF) and k<sub>mono</sub> were coupled in CR throughout the RT, but not in PR. Dynamic C-AC PET provides a new non-invasive method to simultaneously evaluate the tumor oxidative metabolism and perfusion which link the RT response in patients by a single tracer injection.</p> <p>In prostate cancer, elevated C-AC accumulation is common in benign inguinal lymph nodes, probably due to increased lipogenesis rather than lymphatic drainage. CT Hounsfield unit of benign nodes was lower than that of metastases, suggesting that density measurement using CT might improve the specificity of nodal staging of prostate cancer.</p> <p>A novel tracer 2-[<sup>18</sup>F]-fluoroacetate (F-AC) was synthesized and used for dynamic PET-CT imaging in animals. Compared with C-AC PET-CT, F-AC showed prolonged blood retention, no detectable trapping in myocardium and salivary glands, rapid excretion from liver to bile and urine and de-fluorination resulting in intensive skeletal activity. F-AC does not mimic the normal physiologic path of C-AC and appears to be of little use for assessment of perfusion, intermediary metabolism or lipogenesis.</p>
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