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  • Willing, Ben, et al. (författare)
  • Twin studies reveal specific imbalances in the mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with ileal Crohn's disease
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - New York : John Wiley & Sons. - 1078-0998 .- 1536-4844. ; 15:5, s. 653-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Large interindividual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease (CD).</p><p>METHODS: To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and the influence of genotype, we studied the mucosa-associated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n = 6) or concordant (n = 4) for CD. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).</p><p>RESULTS: The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal CD had a dramatically lower abundance (P &lt; 0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P &lt; 0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with CD localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal CD phenotype, distinct from colonic CD, and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of CD and eventually customized treatment.</p>
  • Peerzada, Jehanna M., et al. (författare)
  • Delivery room decision-making for extremely preterm infants in Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Pediatrics. - 0031-4005 .- 1098-4275. ; 117:6, s. 1988-1995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: To assess neonatologists' attitudes and practices regarding treatment of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room, particularly in response to parental wishes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of all neonatologists in Sweden registered with the Swedish Pediatric Society. RESULTS: The response rate was 71% (88 of 124 neonatologists). At 24[1/7] to 24[6/7] weeks of gestation, 68% of neonatologists considered treatment clearly beneficial; at 25[1/7] to 25[6/7] weeks of gestation, 93% considered it clearly beneficial. When respondents consider treatment clearly beneficial, 97% reported that they would resuscitate in the delivery room despite parental requests to withhold treatment. At or below 23[0/7] weeks of gestation, 94% of neonatologists considered treatment futile. Nineteen percent reported that they would provide what they consider futile treatment at parental request. When respondents consider treatment to be of uncertain benefit, 99% reported that they would resuscitate when parents request it, 99% reported that they would resuscitate when parents are unsure, and 25% reported that they would follow parental requests to withhold treatment. CONCLUSION: Although neonatologists' attitudes and practices varied, respondents to our survey in general envisioned little parental role in delivery room decision-making for extremely preterm infants.</p>
  • Norrman, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of image process parameters through factorial experiments using a flat panel detector
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - Bristol : IOP publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 52:17, s. 5263-5276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the optimization process of lumbar spine examinations, factorial experiments were performed addressing the question of whether the effective dose can be reduced and the image quality maintained by adjusting the image processing parameters. A 2(k)-factorial design was used which is a systematic and effective method of investigating the influence of many parameters on a result variable. Radiographic images of a Contrast Detail phantom were exposed using the default settings of the process parameters for lumbar spine examinations. The image was processed using different settings of the process parameters. The parameters studied were ROI density, gamma, detail contrast enhancement (DCE), noise compensation, unsharp masking and unsharp masking kernel (UMK). The images were computer analysed and an image quality figure (IQF) was calculated and used as a measurement of the image quality. The parameters with the largest influence on image quality were noise compensation, unsharp masking, unsharp masking kernel and detail contrast enhancement. There was an interaction between unsharp masking and kernel indicating that increasing the unsharp masking improved the image quality when combined with a large kernel size. Combined with a small kernel size however the unsharp masking had a deteriorating effect. Performing a factorial experiment gave an overview of how the image quality was influenced by image processing. By adjusting the level of noise compensation, unsharp masking and kernel, the IQF was improved to a 30% lower effective dose.</p>
  • Sarve, Hamid, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of bone remodeling in the proximity of implants
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP07). - Berlin : Springer. - 978-3-540-74271-5 ; s. 253-260
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In histomorphometrical investigations of bone tissue modeling around screw-shaped implants, the manual measurements of bone area and bone-implant contact length around the implant are time consuming and subjective. In this paper we propose an automatic image analysis method for such measurements. We evaluate different discriminant analysis methods and compare the automatic method with the manual one. The results show that the principal difference between the two methods occurs in length estimation, whereas the area measurement does not differ significantly. A major factor behind the dissimilarities in the results is believed to be misclassification of staining artifacts by the automatic method.</p>
  • Girma Kebede, Betlehem, et al. (författare)
  • Communicative challenges among physicians, patients, and family caregivers in cancer care: An exploratory qualitative study in Ethiopia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cancer is a growing concern in Ethiopia. Though communication is essential for the treatment process, few studies have looked at communication in Ethiopian cancer care. Due to the large number of patients and scarcity of resources, it is vital to understand how to manage consultations in order to effectively help as many patients as possible in this challenging work environment. Thus, research is needed to analyze and understand the communicative challenges experienced by physicians, patients, and family caregivers, in order to successfully handle patient care in practice. Objective We explore communication in Ethiopian cancer care and present the main challenges faced by physicians, patients, and family caregivers. Methods This explorative qualitative study was conducted at the Oncology Department of the Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A triangulation of data collection methods was used: 91 audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews and 21 video-recordings of authentic interactions during hospital rounds. The aim was to obtain as complete a picture as possible of communication from the perspectives of physicians, patients, and family caregivers. The interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the identified themes were supported by excerpts from the transcribed recordings. Results Eight themes emerged from the data. Workload and time pressure, in combination with restricted space for privacy, limited the possibilities for physicians to deliver detailed information and provide emotional support. Furthermore, patient literacy levels, in combination with no or little cancer awareness, financial problems, reliance on traditional and religious treatments, the stigma of cancer, and a fatalistic attitude, resulted in delays in patients seeking care and participating in positive health behaviors, and, subsequently, often resulted in an unwillingness to openly discuss problems with physicians and adhere to treatment. The study also illustrates the paramount role of family in physician-patient communication in Ethiopia. Though family caregivers provide a valuable interpreting support when patients have limited language skills, they can also prevent patients from sharing information with physicians. Another important finding is that family caregivers were often responsible for making decisions about treatment and avoided telling patients about a poor prognosis, believing that conveying bad news may upset them. All of these themes have important implications for the role of ethically acceptable communication in patient-centered care. Conclusions This study has identified a number of serious challenges for successful and ethically acceptable health communication in Ethiopian cancer care. The study contributes to our understanding of the complexity around the role of family, combined with patients’ dependency on family members for communication, support, and access to care, which creates particular ethical dilemmas for the medical staff. The questions raised by this study concern how to organize consultations to achieve patient-centered health communication, while maintaining a constructive alliance with the family and not jeopardizing the patient’s continued access to care. The integration of communication training for medical students in Ethiopia, with a focus on ethical guidelines for family-centered patient consultation suitable for these circumstances, would be an essential step.
  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie, 1954- (författare)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.</p><p><strong>Aims:</strong> To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.</p><p><strong>Method:</strong> Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.</p><p><strong>Result:</strong> In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.</p>
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Hematopoietic cancer including lymphoma in celiac disease according to Marsh criteria 0-3
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Background: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, but it is unknown if borderline mucosal damage and latent CD are risk factors for lymphoma.Methods: We examined the risk of hematopoietic cancer in a nationwide population–based cohort of 28,800 individuals with biopsy-verified CD (villous atrophy, Marsh 3), 12,663 individuals with small intestinal inflammation (Marsh 1+2), and 3,551 with latent CD (positive antiendomysial, tissue transglutaminase or antigliadin test but normal mucosa on biopsy). The study participants were identified through all pathology departments (n=28) in Sweden and were biopsied in 1969-2006 (median: 1998). Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for hematopoietic malignancies.Results: While biopsy-verified CD and intestinal inflammation were both statistically significantly associated with lymphoma (CD: HR = 3.18; 95% CI = 2.63-3.83; inflammation: 1.66; 1.28-2.17), latent CD was not (1.04; 0.44-2.43). CD was associated with both non-Hodgkin’s (NHL) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) (4.81; 3.81-6.07 and 4.39; 2.59-7.45 respectively). Risk estimates for NHL and HL were lower in inflammation (1.65; 1.15-2.38 and 1.48; 0.60-3.62 respectively) and latent CD (1.79; 0.74-4.34 and 1.08; 0.13-9.00 respectively). No increased risk of lymphoma was seen in children with a small intestinal biopsy. This study found no association between leukemia and small intestinal pathology.Conclusion: CD is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma. This risk increase was also seen in individuals with small intestinal inflammation. Latent CD is not associated with lymphoma of any kind, and positive CD serology alone cannot be used to predict future risk of lymphoma.</p>
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of HLA DQ2, dietary exposure and coeliac disease on the development of antibody response to gliadin in children
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 41:8, s. 919-928
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of HLA DQ2, dietary history and development of coeliac disease (CD) on the induction of antibody response to wheat gliadin and cow's milk, beta-lactoglobulin between 1 and 2.5 years of age in children who developed CD and in healthy children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infants participating in a birth cohort study (the ABIS study) in Sweden were studied. Thirty-nine children developed CD (=cases), confirmed through biopsy, during follow-up until 2.5-5 years of age. A total of 181 healthy control children were matched for duration of exclusive breast-feeding, birth-weight, gender, maternal smoking and season of birth. IgG and IgA antigliadin and anti-beta-lactoglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The effects of HLA-risk genotypes, DQ2 and DQ8, on CD were also considered. RESULTS: Children who developed CD had higher IgG and IgA antigliadin and anti-beta-lactoglobulin antibody levels at 1 year of age than controls (all comparisons: p&lt;0.001). Similar differences were seen between cases with as yet undiagnosed CD by 1 year of age and controls, and also when cases were compared with HLA-matched controls. Higher levels of IgG and IgA antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin (p=0.003; p=0.001), but not to gliadin, were found in treated cases versus controls at 2.5 years of age. HLA-DQ2-positive healthy children had lower levels of IgG and IgA antigliadin antibodies than HLA-DQ2 negative controls at 1 year of age (p=0.004; p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced humoral response emerging not only to gliadin, but also to other food antigens seems to be primarily associated with CD. Poor induction of antibody response to wheat gliadin in healthy children with the HLA-DQ2 risk molecule could at least partly explain the genetic predisposition to gluten intolerance and CD.</p>
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Franzén, Karin, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary incontinence : evaluation of an information campaign directed towards the general public
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 42:6, s. 534-538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective</strong>. To study and evaluate the effect of an information campaign in the form of a brochure on urinary incontinence (UI) directed towards the general public, concerning knowledge, individual health behaviour, self-reported healthcare utilization and how the information was perceived.</p><p><strong>Material and methods.</strong> Within a community in central Sweden a random sample of the population, in age groups from 18 years upwards, was selected from the population registry, resulting in a total sample of 3658 people. The study group was sent the brochure "Treatment of urinary incontinence", produced by SBU (Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care) in March 2003 and a questionnaire 1–2 months after the brochure was received.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>. The overall response rate was 47.5%. Eighty per cent of the responders stated UI as an important health problem in society and 66% that they had gained new knowledge on UI. Twenty-eight per cent of the responders reported a current or previous history of UI, of whom 49% felt that they had received useful information for self-treatment and 21% had begun self-treatment.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>. This population-based study found that the distribution of a brochure on UI to the general public was well received and can be an efficient method to spread knowledge and encourage self-management. </p>
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