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Sökning: L4X0:0345 0082 > (1990-1994)

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111.
  • Åström, Jan (författare)
  • Introductory greeting behaviour in relation to sex, age, physical characteristics, attitudes, personality, and psychopathology : Approaches by interviews, observations, and experiments
  • 1993
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The overall aim of this thesis was to elucidate, through interviews, observations and experiments, elements of the introductory greeting, such as sex, age, physical characteristics, personality, and psychopathology, in a psychotherapeutic situation. As an introductory greeting it was considered here the ftrst occasion the therapist and the patient greet each other in the waiting room.</p><p>Papers I - III in the thesis deal with the construction of an interview questionnaire, its psychometric properties and use among psychotherapists (n= 79) and psychotherapeutic out-patients (n= 50). Psychotherapists were interviewed about their attitudes towards and observations of nonverbal communication in an introductory greeting situation. The results from the interview were related to therapists' background variables such as sex, age, clinical experience, and theoretical orientation. Psychotherapeutic out-patients were interviewed in a similar way.</p><p>Paper IV deals with rated handshaking in psychiatric patients (n= 29) related to personality traits according to an abbreviated scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Faschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI (FAM), clinical diagnoses, and psychosocial functioning. Four handshaking variables were rated independently by two raters in a ftve steps scale: the perceived Consistency, Temperature, Dryness and Strength of the hand. The interrater reliability was satisfactory.</p><p>Papers V - VI deal with the greeting behaviour of healthy subjects (n= 50) in an experimental setting. The introductory greeting behaviour was fthned and nonverbal immediacy behaviour (NVIB) analysed in the approaching and close salutation phases together with the handshaking variables, and related to some back-ground variables such as sex, age, body height, vigour of the hand, and personality traits.</p><p>The interview questionnaire possessed satisfactory psychometric qualities (Paper I). Female psychotherapists paid signiftcantly greater importance to 'face communication in the greeting situation compared to male therapists. Great importance attached to nonverbal communication in psychotherapy was related to being well-kept and to perform correctly in front of the patient, to establish direct communication in the greeting situation, and to frequent work in psychotherapy and an eclectic psychotherapeutic orientation (Paper II). The importance of the face as a mean of contact in nonverbal communication was particularly stressed by female, mainly older patients who believed that 'face communication' covers more than 50 percent of the total communication in human interactions (Paper III).</p><p>The findings in psychiatric patients (Paper IV) indicate that the handshaking procedure may transmit information about personality make-up. Low temperature and humidity of the palmar skin were related to social introversion, depression, and tendency to symptom enhancement mainly in women.</p><p>The reliability and stability over time of nonverbal immediacy behaviour (physic and psychological closeness) and handshake characteristics in the experimental study were on the whole satisfactory (Papers V - VI). Women displayed greater intimacy behaviour (less physical distance and presence of smile) in their greeting behaviour than males. Statistically signiftcant correlations between variables of handshaking and personality traits were noted. Strength of the hand in particular was related to extraversion loaded traits as dominance, aggression and exhibition.</p>
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112.
  • Öberg, Tommy, 1943- (författare)
  • Trapezius muscle fatigue and electromyographic frequency analysis
  • 1992
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This study, comprising 6 separate articles, is concerned with different validity and reliability aspects of the electromyogram mean power frequency (MPF) as an estimator of localized musele fatigue in the trapezius muscle. A series of new, and partly controversial and problematic findings are reported.</p><p>There was a systematic variation of MPF that was not related to muscle fatigue, but to other factors such as shoulder joint angle, torque and external hand load, which can erroneously be interpreted as muscle fatigue; the largest variation, ±8%, was related to joint angle; movements of the surface electrodes was the most probable explanation of this variation and thus significantly influence the MPF estimates; there was an unacceptably large random variation of single MPF estimates; single estimates should not be used for normalization of MPF; there was no correlation between MPF and subjective muscle fatigue at low load level; MPF did not work as a valid estimator of localized muscle fatigue at low load level; load dose was not a suitable parameter to represent physical stimulus at the evaluation of subjective fatigue; the EMG response to fatigue seemed to be different in healthy muscle compared with diseased muscle in patients with unilateral work-related trapezius myalgia; the changes were more pronounced on the healthy side.</p><p>All these factors have to be considered if MPF is to be used as an estimator of localized muscle fatigue. Procedures are proposed to overcome some of these difficulties and reduce some of the variations such as a standard procedure for calibration, repeated measurements, regression procedures with calculation of trends insted of evaluation of single MPF estimate etc. There is a need for more research concerning the variation of MPF and procedures to handle this variation.</p>
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113.
  • Öhman, Sten (författare)
  • Diagnostic methods for demonstration of intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulines within the central nervous system
  • 1994
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis is based upon studies of quantitative and qualitative determinations of immunoglobulins A, G, and M (lgA, IgG, and IgM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in serum. Inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and infections (e.g. meningitis) affecting the central nervous system are characterized by intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins, and therefore determinations of them in CSF are important diagnostic tools.</p><p>A non-linear relationship between the CSF/serum ratios of IgG, IgA, IgM, and albumin was found in patients with damaged blood-CSF barrier, but in whom no intrathecal synthesis orimmunoglobulins was expected. On the basis of this non-linear relationship a new kind of formula, the extended indices (lgA-EI, IgG-EI, and IgM-EI), was developed to giveimproved estimates of intrathecal synthesis.</p><p>These formulae were evaluated together with other proposed formulae and with agarose isoelectrofocusing, to determine their diagnostic sensitivities in different neurological diseases. The main advantage with the extended indices, compared to other formulae, was a lower rate offalse positive tests, without affecting the diagnostic sensitivities for intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis.</p><p>A method based on ultracentrifugation is presented, where the distribution of monomeric and dimeric IgA in CSF and serum can be determined quantitatively. Both total and Ilerpes simplex virus specific lgA antibodies were estimated with respect to the physical form of lgA.</p><p>For determination of CSF-IgM the sampling should be performed with an atraumatic Sprotte needle to minimise pre-analytical errors owing to contamination with serum or interstitial fluid.</p>
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114.
  • Öllinger, Karin, 1962- (författare)
  • Cellular toxicity of quinones : Redox- and addition chemistry
  • 1992
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Quinoid compounds are widely occurring in nature. They have cytotoxic properties and they are also used as antineoplastic agents. The cytotoxic properties can be explained by the ability of quinones to generate active oxygen species by redox cycling, by addition to cellular nucleophiles, and by inhibition of DNA transcription.</p><p>This study aims to the characterisation of free radical generating capacity and electrophilicity of 1,4- naphthoquinones as a function of their substitution pattern. Further, the mechanism for adriamycin toxicity to heart myocytes has been investigated.</p><p>The two-electron reducing enzyme DT-diaphorase reduces 1,4-naphthoquinones bearing methyl-, hydroxy-, methoxy-, and glutathionyl substituents to their corresponding 1 ,4-naphthohydroquinone. The 1 ,4-naphthohydroquinones bearing hydroxy- and glutathionyl substituents are readily oxidized by oxygen, generating superoxide anion radicals and subsequently hydrogen peroxide. All quinones studied can be reduced by the one-electron reducing enzyme NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase yielding semiquinones that efficiently reduces oxygen to superoxide anion radicals.</p><p>The nucleophilic addition of glutathione to un- and benzene-ring hydroxy substituted 1,4- naphthoquinones proceeds with glutathione addition at rates decreasing with the number of hydroxy groups, reflecting the decreased electrophilicity of these quinones.</p><p>The effect of hydroxy-substituent position on 1 ,4-naphthoquinone toxicity in primary rat hepatocyte cultues revealed that substituents in the benzene ring increase the toxicity, compared to 1 Anaphthoquinone, due to an increased efficiency ofredoxcycling. Hydroxy-substituent in the quinoid ring renders a quinone that is much less cytotoxic due to decreased electrophilicity and unfavorable reduction potential.</p><p>The antineoplastic drug Adriamycin has the broadest spectrum of activity of all chemotherapeutic agents. Its clinical use, however, is diminished by an unique cardiamyopathy. The involvment of oxygen free radicals in adriamycin cardiotoxicity was investigated using primary cultured neonatalrat heart myocytes. The toxicity decreased at low oxygen pressure and was further decreased by addition of the antioxidant N,N' -diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, indicating that generation of free radicals contribute to the myocardial toxicity.</p>
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