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Sökning: L4X0:0436 1121 > (2010-2019) > (2013)

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11.
  • Tyrén, Lena (författare)
  • "Vi får ju inte riktigt förutsättningarna för att genomföra det som vi vill" en studie om lärare möjligheter och hinder till förändring och förbättring i praktiken
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Initially the overall aim of this thesis was to describe and analyse what was happening in the educational activities when teachers at a school that I have called Tower School introduced the computer as a tool for helping pupils who were learning to write and read. Key questions concerned the issue of improvement. Did introducing the computer as a tool in the teaching and learning process help the pupils with their learning or not and, if so, in what ways. The research approach chosen was an action research approach. Action research is concerned with professional practice and improvement. It is contextual and oriented toward action processes and change. The initial phase of the research went more or less according to plan. I followed the development process of the introduction and use of the computer as a learning tool, met regularly with the teachers and together with them developed a good working relationship. After about a year things changed. With the restructuring that was taking place in the region changes began to take place also at Tower School and this had effects on the research. In addition to the initial aim to research changes related to student learning a second purpose developed. This purpose was to describe and analyse how political governance and underlying societal forces might influence what happens in school development. There were two reasons for this new extra dimension. One was a methodological interest in relation to planning action research projects at times of political change in the education sector. The other was an educational theoretical interest connected to the school as a policy-driven organization. My interest here was for changes in the political economy at the macro level and how the network of macro-political and economic relations affected the micropolitical level of the school, its classrooms, participating teachers in these classrooms, their students and me as a researcher?
12.
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13.
  • Öhrn, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Avslutande diskussion
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Kön och karriär i akademin : en studie inom det utbildningsvetenskapliga fältet. - Göteborg : Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. - 978-91-7346-761-2 - 978-91-7346-761-9 (e-bok) ; s. 165-176
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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14.
  • Levinsson, Magnus (författare)
  • Evidens och existens. Evidensbaserad undervisning i ljuset av lärares erfarenheter.
  • 2013
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the last decade there has been a strong focus on making teaching into an evidence-based profession. The idea of evidence-based practice itself has been widely debated over the years and has been criticized, primarily for its positivistic assumptions. The many controversies that have arisen have tended to reinforce the dualism between qualitative and quantitative research, and seem to have made educational researchers generally reluctant to deal with the notion of evidence-based education. Following on from this, there is an inherent risk that professionals in schools will not be given enough resources to cope with the new demands made on their work. In the present thesis, the suggested way forward in this matter is to study evidence-based practice in practice. The aim of this thesis is to study the opportunities and limitations associated with the different models of evidence-based practice that have been proposed, by exploring professionals’ experiences of using evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. Formative assessment is used as an example to open up for an empirical approach, since it has been repeatedly identified as an evidence-based strategy. The study was conducted within the context of a local development project aimed at improving formative assessment in an upper secondary school in Sweden. In total, six teachers, who represent a mixed group of subjects, participated. To explore the teachers’ experiences in this setting, the study was based on a phenomenological approach that emphasizes collaboration between researcher and participant. The themes of lived experience that are described in the thesis invalidate the “classical model” of evidence-based practice and its expectations about how evidence can and should be used by professionals. If one considers the complexities that the teachers encountered, it is hard to see how the use of research could be made more “linear”, or how practical guidelines can raise standards of achievement. Nevertheless, it is claimed that the lived examples contribute to the present efforts to adjust the principles of evidence-based practice to educational settings. Evidence-informed practice is discussed as an alternative model and proposed as a way forward. In conclusion, the need for the evidence-based practice movement to take “critical appraisal” into account, and encourage this kind of professionalism in teachers, is deeply emphasized.
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15.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Knowledge at play. Studies of games as members’ matters Kunskap genom spelande. Studier av digitala spel och spelande som kunskapsdomän
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • On a general level, this thesis seeks some answers to the broad question of what one can learn from digital games. With an analytical approach informed by ethnomethodology, the main thrust of the work is an exploration of members’ matters in the area of games and gaming. In response to prevailing discussions about how, where and what gamers learn, the aim is to examine emerging forms of knowledge embedded in practices in and around digital games. The first part of the thesis addresses three themes: the question of whether leisure gaming could be understood to have transfer effects; how games are positioned in a state of restlessness and multistableness; and how the domain encompassing gaming and game development is advancing in terms of professionalization and institutionalization. The second part is comprised of three empirical studies based on two sets of video recordings: collaborative gaming in The Lord of the Rings Online, and assessment practices in game development education. The studies begin to unravel the elusive phenomena of gaming by making some gameplay practices and conventions visible. For instance, the findings suggest that there are specialized coordination practices, developed through long-term engagement with the online game. Furthermore, from the perspective of the institutional framing, it is argued that understandings from other media are not applicable in a straightforward manner, but must be carefully calibrated to matters such as game genre conventions and control over gameplay conduct. By describing the reasoning and knowledge displayed by gamers and game developers, the thesis contributes to interrelated discussions about knowledge development, currently carried out in educational science, interaction studies and game studies. In conclusion, it is suggested that digital games are establishing autonomy from other forms of entertainment media and software industries as a result of the ways games and gaming as multistable objects of knowledge have become deeply embedded in society.
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16.
  • Bradley, Linda, 1961- (författare)
  • Language learning and technology. Student activities in web-based environments
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The impact of the web as a communicative arena, based on the use of social software, has changed conditions for communication on all levels of society; privately, at work and in education. This has opened up for multicultural communication, frequently with English as the lingua franca.Exploring how the web and web-based technologies afford learning activities is something that is related to practical and theoretical interests in the field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). These interests are also the foundation for this thesis. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of how web-based environments can change the conditions for language learning. Within a socio-cultural framework, the thesis explores activities and student interaction in web-based learning environments in language learning for engineering students in higher education in Sweden. The main research question is how web-based language learning activitiescontribute to the development of language competences. There are four more specific questions: How are web-based technologies situated in language learning environments? What forms of activities and student interaction evolve? How can web-based peer reviewing contribute to languagelearning? How can intercultural exchanges contribute to language learning?The empirical foundation of the thesis comprises four case studies of educational designs including student activities in blogs and wikis. Data consists of logs of student driven web-based activities and interviews. The first study investigates how students use a wiki as their joint workspace. The results show that the students either use the web page or the discussion forum on the wiki, entailing both a form-based and a content-based focus. Three types of activity patterns emerge: contributing and writing together; evaluating and peer reviewing; and arguing and discussing. The second study explores rationalities of student co-production of texts on a wiki. The patterns of interaction in groups can be characterized either as co-operation or collaboration. The results show that the collaborating groups are more frequent in giving peer response. When writing together,collaboration with contributions from diverse perspectives changes thedynamics not only of text production but the text in itself. This has potential for language learning since the students become involved in many levels of text production, from very detailed linguistic aspects to discursive and semantic aspects. The third study investigates student interaction in a poetry blog exchange with native-English speaking students from the US. In the blogging activity, the students share their interpretation of poems by a Swedish poet. The analysis of the blog postings uncovers four themes of student interaction: blogging in an educational environment; displaying cultural belonging; forming threads that thematize content and meaning of poems; and discussions of language and translation issues in an intercultural environment. Study four investigates an intercultural exchange, targeting student peer-reviewing in a wiki. The procedure of giving comments to and receiving comments from peer students from another culture offersdiversity to text revision processes. Being engaged in an intercultural peer review exchange offers opportunities in getting an insight into different ways of expression, conditions of giving and receiving feedback, culturaldifferences when meeting someone from outside of one’s own disciplinary field and from another country and with another language background. This is in line with core issues of intercultural exchanges that concern masteringexpressions of other cultures than one’s own. The four studies contribute to the understanding of how web-based environments can be used in language learning. They display a range of productive student interaction such as discussing, collaborating, and responding through text. In conclusion, they demonstrate that educational designs utilizing web-based writing technologies offer a space to develop discursive, linguistic and cultural competences.
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17.
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18.
  • Johansson, Stefan, 1980- (författare)
  • On the Validity of Reading Assessments: Relationships Between Teacher Judgements, External Tests and Pupil Self-Assessments
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis is to examine validity issues in different forms of assessments; teacher judgements, external tests, and pupil self-assessment in Swedish primary schools. The data used were selected from a large-scale study––PIRLS 2001––in which more than 11000 pupils and some 700 teachers from grades 3 and 4 participated. The primary method used in the secondary analyses to investigate validity issues of the assessment forms is multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with latent variables. An argument-based approach to validity was adopted, where possible weaknesses in assessment forms were addressed. A fairly high degree of correspondence between teacher judgements and test results was found within classrooms with a correlation of .65 being obtained for 3rd graders, a finding well in line with documented results in previous research. Grade 3 teachers’ judgements correlated higher than those of grade 4 teachers. The longer period of time spent with the pupils, as well as their different education, were suggested as plausible explanations. Gender and socioeconomic status (SES) of the pupils showed a significant effect on the teacher judgements, in that girls and pupils with higher SES received higher judgements from teachers than test results accounted for. Teachers with higher levels of formal competence were shown to have pupils with higher achievement levels. Pupil achievement was measured with both teacher judgements and PIRLS test results. Furthermore, higher correspondence between judgements and test-results was demonstrated for teachers with higher levels of competence. Comparisons of classroom achievement were shown to be problematic with the use of teachers’ judgements. The judgements reflected different achievement levels, despite the fact that test-results indicated similar performance levels across classrooms. Pupil self-assessments correlated slightly lower to both teacher judgement and to test results, than did teacher judgements and test results. However, in spite of their young age, pupils assessed their knowledge and skills in the reading domain relatively well. No differences in self-assessments were found for pupils of different gender or SES. In summary, a conclusion of the studies on the three forms of assessment was that all have certain limitations. Strengths and weaknesses of the different assessment forms were discussed.
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19.
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20.
  • Larsson, Kristoffer, 1974- (författare)
  • Kritiskt tänkande i grundskolans samhällskunskap. En fenomenografisk studie om manifesterat kritiskt tänkande i samhällskunskap hos elever i årskurs 9. Critical thinking in compulsory school civics. A phenomenographic study of 9th grade students’ critical thinking in civics.
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cultivating students’ critical thinking skills is recognized as a highly important educational goal in many societies in the western world, not least in Sweden. Despite this the research community has so far produced little substantial knowledge on critical thinking and calls for new research approaches have been made. In this study the phenomenographic perspective is offered as such a new approach, addressing, as it does, critical thinking in civics among Swedish 9th grade compulsory school students. According to phenomenography, students’ critical thinking is delimited by the way of experiencing a phenomenon that induces critical thinking. Thus differences in students’ critical thinking are linked to differences in the way of experiencing the phenomena inducing a manifestation of critical thinking. The empirical investigation in the study revolves around how 19 9th grade students experience four different tasks designed to induce critical thinking about philosophical and political views of justice. In broader terms the main aim of the study is to describe the students’ different ways of experiencing each particular task and furthermore, to link each specific way of experiencing a particular task to a specific type of critical thinking in relation to that task. Another aim is to make suggestions on how the kind of empirical results emanating from the main aim can be used in education practice to enhance 9th grade students’ critical thinking in civics. The study’s empirical results show how the way of experiencing a particular task plays a decisive role for the type of critical thinking made possible in relation to the task. A more powerful way of experiencing the task is delimited by a more powerful type of critical thinking in relation to the task. A less powerful way of experiencing the task is delimited by a less powerful type of critical thinking in relation to the task. With these results as a backbone, the study takes on an extensive discussion of how the results can be applied in education practice in order to enhance 9th grade students’ critical thinking in civics. The discussion deals with different suggestions for how the teacher can make the students’ ways of experiencing more powerful, in relation to tasks and content in civics that “call for” critical thinking, by using the phenomenographic theory of variation.
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