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Sökning: L4X0:0436 1121 > (2010-2019) > (2013)

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21.
  • Lilliestam, Anna-Lena, 1952- (författare)
  • Aktör och struktur i historieundervisning. Om utveckling av elevers historiska resonerande
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Historical reasoning is the organizing of information about the past in order to describe, compare, and/or explain historical phenomena. In this study I investigate the ability to reason historically in terms of agent and structure in an educational context. What does it mean to reason historically in this specific way? What does it take for students to develop this ability? Two main materials are used: texts, where students reason historically in terms of agent and structure, and lessons where the objective is to make it possible for the students to develop this ability. I look for qualitative similarities and differences in how the students reason, aiming at a pedagogically meaningful categorization that allows critical aspects of the ability to be identified. The analysis of the lessons deepens this understanding. The difference between a temporal description of chains of events on one hand, and reasoning about agents and structures on the other, is shown to be crucial. The students must discern what reasoning in terms of agent and structure is: a synchronous discussion of the relative importance of structural factors and factors concerning agents in a historical situation. Students must also discern that structures can be of different kinds, as can agents; that relevant factors must be selected; that connections between the factors should be made explicit; that these factors may be developed by further explanation, by an assessment of their relative significance, by making comparisons, or by making causal connections. The results also indicate that the objects of learning tend to change when enacted in the classroom: from the ability to reason historically towards the historical content, and towards temporal accounts of chains of action. A relationship is seen between the teaching in the different classes and how the students reason. Counterfactual reasoning is found to be useful in making it possible for the students to develop their understanding of structures, and as a tool for formative assessment.
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22.
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23.
  • Sträng Haraldsson, Monica, 1948- (författare)
  • Yngre elevers lärande om naturen. En studie av kommunikation om modeller i institutionella kontexter
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the study is to draw attention to and examine how young students (approximately 5-13 years) are involved in communication about nature, what approaches to nature are mediated in the social practices of preschool, school, and a science center, and how functional these approaches may be as providing learners with tools for making sense in other situations in everyday life and society. Empirical investigations were carried out by observations, tape recordings and video recordings of interaction in different educational contexts and presented in three studies. The first study is about a group of preschool children (5 years old) and their teacher visiting an exhibition about the water flow at a science center and the teacher communicating with the children about their visit during circle time at the preschool. The second study is about conversations about the water cycle between teachers and young students (8-10 years old) at a primary school, with a prop in the form of a photograph taken in a real rainforest. The third study is about students (12-13 years old) working in pairs in a computer-simulated micro world of ecological processes on an African savanna. Taking a sociocultural perspective, the results indicate that in all the studied contexts, the conversations between the students and teachers were characterized by being indistinct, i.e. not being conducted within a distinct discourse. The students had difficulties following the teachers’ communication strategies. It seemed to be important for the teachers that the students themselves understood what the conversation was about and to arrive at the right answer. Students’ possibility to express their knowledge is closely dependent on the adults’ strategies. The most successful strategy for students is to follow the teacher’s way of speaking. This leads to the fact that some students succeed to talk in such a way that is expected by the teacher in the conversation. When the teacher is absent the students make sense by referring to their previous experience. Without support by the teacher the students thus thematize nature on their own terms. In the investigated activities the models are handled as if being self-illustrative. Models, as such, and how they are related to what they refer to was never explained by the teachers in the studied activities.
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24.
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25.
  • Ärlemalm-Hagsér, Eva, 1958- (författare)
  • Engagerade i världens bästa? Lärande för hållbarhet i förskolan
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis the aim is to acquire knowledge about and to scrutinise the ambiguity, complexity and contradictions within education for sustainability in the Swedish preschool, as well as analysing children’s agency and meaningmaking and how they are manifested in relation to education for sustainability. In this qualitative research, the theoretical framework is guided by a critical theory approach as well as an ecofeministic perspective. The empirical material was obtained in four studies, which are presented in four articles focusing on different levels in the educational system, i.e. the national preschool curriculum, the envisioned curriculum and the enacted curriculum. Owing to the complexity of the objects of inquiry a bricolage methodological approach is used. The first article focuses on day care attendants’ comprehension of the concept of sustainable development and the pedagogical practices at their place of work in preschools. The second article scrutinises education for sustainable development in the Swedish preschool and the ways that young children are described as active participants and agents of change. The third article analyses the ways that young children were described and supported as active participants for change in the Australian and Swedish national steering documents for early childhood education. In the fourth article the dialogues between preschool children and preschool teachers are analysed in a theme about Earth Hour. In the final analysis all four articles are analysed as a whole to synthesise the findings and acquire knowledge about education for sustainability in the Swedish preschool. The findings show that education for sustainability is seen as an important task in the preschool educational activities and that preschool children participate in various activities (knowledge contents) dealing with sustainability issues. Children are also described as important actors in relation to their own lives in the present and in the future. Themes that become visible are related to: the present as an ongoing relation with the past and the future, places of agency, preschool children and nature, and preschool as an affirmative sustainability practice. In these themes hidden structures appear with unreflected and takenfor- granted assumptions: in relation to the knowledge contents, places for children’s agency and in children's relationship to nature. On the other hand, education for sustainability in the Swedish preschool can also be interpreted as a place where a transformative opportunity sometimes occurs. This is evident in the rhetoric of children’s rights and skills, a rights logic, as well as in the logic of care, which manifests itself in the respect for the child and respect for nature. The findings point to a complex web in which the present-day educational activities still contain notions and ideas from the early preschool days, along with more contemporary understanding of children, childhood and the preschool as a place where different political and practical agenda are expressed.
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