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  • Thulin, Susanne, 1953- (författare)
  • Lärares tal och barns nyfikenhet kommunikation om naturvetenskapliga innehåll i förskolan
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to generate new knowledge about how children and teachers communicate scientific contents in preschool. The general research question is formulated as: How do the object of learning and the act of learning appear in communication about scientific contents in preschool? This thesis is a collection of three (previously published) empirical studies and takes shape in the encounter between a projected knowledge acquisition task for preschool and the educational tradition of preschool.The research approach is based primarily on phenomenography focussing on developmental pedagogy. The results are discussed in relation to situated learning and the assumptions about the task of preschool characterising the social practice that is brought to light. The thesis is based on the assumption that teachers are bearers of taken-for-granted ideas about what the ‘good preschool’ is, and that these ideas affect the way they interpret new tasks.The empirical basis consists of video observations from two preschools working with different thematic projects: Life in the tree stump and How soil is formed. The analysis is delimited to the verbal communication occurring between children and teachers about the scientific content. The children are aged between three and six years. All observations have been transcribed to text and analysed according to the following research questions: Study I: (i) What is communicated as the object of learning in the theme work about natural scientific phenomena in the preschool studied? (ii) What acts of learning appear in the communication of the object of learning? Study II is a re-analysis of the linguistic usage in the empirical data from Study I. Research questions of Study II are: is there any systematic pattern in the use of anthropomorphic speech regarding (i) who uses this language, (ii) when it is used and (iii) what it is used for? Study III is delimited to children’s perspective, and the research questions are: (i) What do children ask about during theme work with a natural scientific process in preschool? (ii) Can any tendency towards change be discerned with regard to what kind of questions children ask in the course of the theme work?The results have thrown light on what natural science is in these preschools, a questioning teacher, an education ideal as an interpretative framework and children’s meeting with the object of learning. The results are discussed in relation to a feasible didactic perspective based on the educational ideal of preschool and in relation to a critical didactic perspective concerning teachers’ will, courage and competence to make the content visible. Finally, with the implementation of the raised knowledge task for preschool in mind, prominence is given to the need of critical reflection over the role of language as maintaining a discourse and the concepts established.
  • Vigmo, Sylvi, 1958- (författare)
  • New Spaces for Language Learning. A study of student interaction in media production in English
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The thesis project takes as its starting point an interest in foreign language learning as a social and cultural activity. Globalisation and digital media have contributed to changed conditions, especially for learning English. These changing conditions offer opportunities and new arenas as well as a challenge for current educational practice. Against this background, the research questions aim to explore foreign language learners’ activities to contribute to our understanding of these changing conditions. The context the digital media environment represents differs from the educational context, and holds different spaces for language activities. The overarching aim in this thesis has been to investigate the linguistic activities of a group of learners of English in school as they engage in a film production. The foreign language learner is here seen as a producer of language and as participating in several practices. Of specific interest was to explore emerging hybrid practices through the analyses of foreign language learners’ activities in an educational context that integrates adolescents’ media literacy repertoires. These research interests were realised by means of an intervention study, Design-based Research (DBR), at upper secondary level. The intervention in existing practice also involved the teacher as the designer of the foreign language-learning task itself. The empirical data mainly consist of video data, which captured the foreign language learners’ activities in one specific case when engaged in a film production. Other empirical data produced during the study consist of classroom observations, learners’ artefacts e.g. paper-based storyboards, teacher interviews and the learners’ final film production. Interaction analysis was applied for the analysis and the foreign language learners’ spoken interaction was analysed in-depth during the production process: from a focus on characters, a narrative, to the editing of their footage. The results from this study demonstrate diverse language learner foci, which display various interrelationships between the digital media resources, adolescents’ media repertories and the language learners’ linguistic production. Digital media offered new spaces and opportunities for language production, spoken and written, and for representing language in use, but were also shown in some cases to constrain the learners. Improvisation and scripted talk during the digital media production led to negotiations and strategies, which involved a playful approach to words, code switching and the use of adolescents’ media experiences as resources. The results from the analyses discuss emerging hybrid practices and potential implications for foreign language education, and point to reasons for looking beyond the common classroom discourse for further research and development.
  • Vikner Stafberg, Monica (författare)
  • Om lärarblivande: En livsvärldsfenomenologisk studie av bildningsgångar in i läraryrket
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to understand and visualize the prospective teachers ' educational trajectories into the profession. The theoretical framework is life-world phenomenological and the method is narrative. The participants were interviewed first as student teachers and then, eight years later, when working as teachers, apart from two students who not work as teachers. In total, 14 life stories were gathered. The participants chose to share the rich and profound stories of their experiences as students and later as teachers, or about the time after their education. The theoretical framework is mainly existential and phenomenological and emanates primarily from Maurice Merleau-Ponty. His philosophy lived body has been fruitful as analysis concepts and he argued that our lived body is our lived existence and that a change in the body is a change in the existence. "Stories to live by" is important stories that teachers must relate to. If "stories to live by" cannot be lived with, the teacher is forced to act, either by accepting or assimilate to, for example, the school's "stories to live by" or by quitting as a teacher. "Stories to live by" is of great importance for the participants ' training time in this study. Many times, the stories reveal how participants are forced into action when "stories to live by" are not possible to live with. Lived body, lived human relationships, lived time and lived room are existentials which works as lenses to understand the becoming of a teacher as an existential matter. One result from the stories is a so-called normative condition in where teacher training and teacher role in times must follow the fixed standards. Through three major reforms of teacher education for the last 30 years, the perception of professionalism is presented as an important starting point for how teacher education constitutes the contemporary perception of the image of the teacher. Emerging, finally, are contours of five educational trajectories with different properties: a normative trajectory, an unhealthy trajectory, an emotional trajectory, an ambitious trajectory and a misleading trajectory. The students probably move in several educational trajectories at the same time. To understand the becoming of a teacher can be to understand the lived perspective. It can also be to understand that the becoming of a teacher is done in existential terms and that teacher training and school should pro-vide space for life.
  • Wicke, Kurt (författare)
  • Läroböcker, demokrati och medborgarskap. Konstruktioner i läroböcker i samhällskunskap för gymnasiet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Swedish citizenship education is charged with a double mission: socialization and education of democratic citizens. This means that textbooks exist in a field of tension between conveying content as true knowledge and offering it as a perspective amongst others. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is employed in order to analyse how textbooks navigate between these poles. Thus, the thesis explores how ten textbooks in social science in upper secondary school construct citizenship and democracy as systems of knowledge and beliefs, relationships and subject positions, with special attention given to the question of how they regulate pupils’ civic activities. The analysis of ten textbooks showed that democracy is constructed as liberal, representative government, and that textbooks describe contemporary Swedish government as a truly democratic, rational and effective form of government. Consequentially, citizens are predominantly described as voters, as opposed to politicians. The relationship between voters and politicians was constructed as a relation of trust and a trade-off where voters exchange votes for political decisions in their favor. The relationship between text and readers is partially characterized by subordination, and partially by persuasion. The common denominator is the necessity to reproduce contemporary political structures by means of practicing citizenship - that is, voting – and by identification with existing formal political structures as democratic and superior. Thus, the overall conclusion is that textbooks enact a certain conflict between means and ends. While the end is the reproduction of liberal democracy and liberal, individual citizenship, pupils are requested to transform themselves into supporters of contemporary Swedish democracy, positioning them as not-yet-citizens and not-yet political subjects
  • Wyszynska Johansson, Martina, 1964- (författare)
  • Student experience of vocational becoming in upper secondary vocational education and training. Navigating by feedback.
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis explores student experience of vocational becoming, particularly the navigational role of feedback in the process for Swedish upper secondary vocational students. Vocational becoming is explored as conflating the development of vocational knowing and formation of a vocational identity. The interest is in the experienced curriculum as emergent and thus unpredictable, fragile and dependent on feedback in interaction. This unpredictability is juxtaposed with tensions involved in standardised outcome-based assessment of vocational knowing and assessment for learning. The thesis focuses primarily on students attending the Swedish Child and Recreation Programme, which is chiefly school-based and intended to prepare young students (16 to 20 years old) for a range of interaction-intensive and people-centred occupations, e.g., nursery nurse, gym instructor and security officer. It is based on empirical material consisting of transcripts of focus group interviews and participant observations of classroom instruction. Four appended articles illuminate students’ collective vocational becoming in this context, two of them specifically addressing students’ experience of becoming prospective security officers. The analysis reveals difficulties for students to interpret the progression of their vocational becoming in the framework of standardised outcome-based assessment and indicates that their experience of vocational becoming for service work centres on attunement to others, referred to as pedagogising encountering (i.e., readiness to learn from encounters and subsequently adjusting to service recipients). Students halfway through their education showed reluctance to participate in feedback, which is presumed to reflect their incomplete progression towards becoming a service provider who pedagogises encountering. Students’ experienced curriculum of becoming security officers is investigated in terms of their meaning-making of central concepts (e.g., surveillance law), called here vocationalising concepts. Vocational becoming, based on students managing discontinuities, is investigated as generalising knowing horizontally between vocational courses in both school- and workplace-based parts of education. It is suggested that young students develop a vocational stance, orienting themselves towards occupation-specific values, e.g., child care and customer care. Teacher-led and structured feedback that orchestrates self-assessment and peer feedback with regard to students’ readiness appears beneficial for vocationalising concepts whereas loosely structured group work mostly offers opportunities for staging pedagogised encounters in peer groups. In addition to contributing to a nuanced understanding of the role of feedback-making in vocational becoming for service work, this thesis contributes to theorisation of vocational becoming in institutionalised settings.
  • Åberg, Mikaela (författare)
  • Doing project work: The interactional organization of tasks, resources, and instructions
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the Swedish educational system, there is a strong emphasis on student autonomy, active knowledge seeking, and critical reflection. Students regularly work individually or in groups with projects that are organized around problems that do not have a straightforward solution. This thesis investigates how such projects are interactionally and practically accomplished. Through detailed analyses of video recorded material of classroom interaction, and within an approach informed by ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, the thesis examines the interactional organization of tasks, resources, and instructions in project work. In the investigated setting, the students are asked to address whether the greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon or caused by humans, how the environmental policies of different countries change the local and global ecosystems, whether they as individuals can help prevent future environmental damage, etc. A central idea of the project work is that the students should produce texts ‘on their own’ based on information they have found in sources they have selected. Although the students are supposed to work independently with these issues, they clearly rely on the instructional and organizational work of teachers. Teachers set the agenda, plan assignments, formulate instructions, give introductions, and provide guidance. Teachers also evaluate the quality of what the students produce, which means that the students continuously need to address normative issues about what they have done and what they are about to do. Given that students often lack the resources for assessing a chosen course of action, this also means students routinely encounter issues that they themselves find difficult to handle. The three empirical studies of the thesis investigate how instructions are given and received, how students and teachers are dealing with the inherent and designed openness of the tasks, and how the encounters between teachers and students are materially, bodily, and interactionally organized. Study 1 shows how the students interpret a task and how they position themselves in relation to the expectations of this task. Study 2 examines student-initiated instructional interaction and shows some systematic ways in which the actions of students and teachers are contingent on, shaped by, and oriented to these tasks and the associated texts. Study 3 addresses how talk and bodily conduct are coordinated and sequentially organized in the closing of encounters and how teachers and students negotiate the transition from instruction to the closing phase.
  • Ärlemalm-Hagsér, Eva, 1958- (författare)
  • Engagerade i världens bästa? Lärande för hållbarhet i förskolan
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis the aim is to acquire knowledge about and to scrutinise the ambiguity, complexity and contradictions within education for sustainability in the Swedish preschool, as well as analysing children’s agency and meaningmaking and how they are manifested in relation to education for sustainability. In this qualitative research, the theoretical framework is guided by a critical theory approach as well as an ecofeministic perspective. The empirical material was obtained in four studies, which are presented in four articles focusing on different levels in the educational system, i.e. the national preschool curriculum, the envisioned curriculum and the enacted curriculum. Owing to the complexity of the objects of inquiry a bricolage methodological approach is used. The first article focuses on day care attendants’ comprehension of the concept of sustainable development and the pedagogical practices at their place of work in preschools. The second article scrutinises education for sustainable development in the Swedish preschool and the ways that young children are described as active participants and agents of change. The third article analyses the ways that young children were described and supported as active participants for change in the Australian and Swedish national steering documents for early childhood education. In the fourth article the dialogues between preschool children and preschool teachers are analysed in a theme about Earth Hour. In the final analysis all four articles are analysed as a whole to synthesise the findings and acquire knowledge about education for sustainability in the Swedish preschool. The findings show that education for sustainability is seen as an important task in the preschool educational activities and that preschool children participate in various activities (knowledge contents) dealing with sustainability issues. Children are also described as important actors in relation to their own lives in the present and in the future. Themes that become visible are related to: the present as an ongoing relation with the past and the future, places of agency, preschool children and nature, and preschool as an affirmative sustainability practice. In these themes hidden structures appear with unreflected and takenfor- granted assumptions: in relation to the knowledge contents, places for children’s agency and in children's relationship to nature. On the other hand, education for sustainability in the Swedish preschool can also be interpreted as a place where a transformative opportunity sometimes occurs. This is evident in the rhetoric of children’s rights and skills, a rights logic, as well as in the logic of care, which manifests itself in the respect for the child and respect for nature. The findings point to a complex web in which the present-day educational activities still contain notions and ideas from the early preschool days, along with more contemporary understanding of children, childhood and the preschool as a place where different political and practical agenda are expressed.
  • Erikson, Robert, 1938-, et al. (författare)
  • Social snedrekrytering till teoretisk gymnasieutbildning
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Utvärdering Genom Uppföljning. :  Longitudinell individforskning under ett halvt sekel. - Göteborg : Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. - ISBN 978-91-7346-699-8 ; s. 205-225
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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