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  • Bivall, Ann-Charlotte (författare)
  • Helpdesking Knowing and learning in IT support practices
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The background of this doctoral thesis is an interest in work achievement over extended time periods in specialized and technology-infused workplaces. Globalization, digitalization and increased focus on customer services are constituent aspects that have been claimed responsible for the current changes in the way work practices and teamwork are organized. In IT helpdesk work, which is the object of study in this thesis, challenges including dissemination of information, keeping up-to-date with technological changes and coordi- nation of people and tasks have been identified as critical. The aim of this thesis is to illuminate how knowing and competence are maintained and shared as participants engage in backstage activities in helpdesk work. The focus is on the nature of the activities that unfolds when employees engage in activities that include interaction as well as artefacts. The empirical material comprises video- and audio-recorded activities of a second-level helpdesk in a large multinational IT provider. Targeted ‘hot spot’ activities are shift changes, quality discussions and introductions of newcomers. Based on a sociocultural perspective, the (re)production of professional practices is understood as continuous negotiations between participants and tools within a situated framework. Methodologically, this implies detailed investigations of authentic activities where interactions and tool use are analysed from the participant’s perspective. Three studies are included in the thesis, each of them provide insights into the organizing of shared knowing and competence. Study One focuses on how tasks and information are communicated between shifts and transformed into workable units and knowledge. Study Two addresses the role of activities specifically arranged for learning and separated from other work tasks. In Study Three, the focus is on introductions of newcomers and what can be learned from interactions with experienced participants and technological tools. The analyses show that knowledge work is a continuous and communicatively-based undertaking. Continuity across shifts relies on several documenting routines and procedures, but shift change meetings provide opportunities for interpretation and negotiation of information as well as coordination of tasks. Talking about work provides a space for reflection and reformulation of team-related quality norms and values as shared foundations for work. Furthermore, inducting newcomers to the specialized and situated practice brings about the very detailed procedures involved in managing everyday work and technological tools. By describing the reasoning and knowing displayed by helpdesk employees, the thesis contributes to discussions about knowledge work and sharing in organizational settings, teamwork, system design and lifelong learning. To conclude, it is suggested that sharing and reproduction of knowing in practice is a collective effort that entails creative involvement by members of the practice.
  • Bredmar, Anna-Carin, 1966- (författare)
  • Lärares arbetsglädje Betydelsen av emotionell närvaro i det pedagogiska arbetet
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis aims to explore teachers’ ‘work enjoyment’ and thereby deepening our understanding of teachers’ work and professionality. Positive emotions in teachers’ work are an underestimated and under-researched dimension of teacher practise and professionality. Through interviews that have generated the empirical material, the work enjoyment of nineteen teachers is focused on and analyzed from a phenomenological lifeworld approach. The results are presented in two parts; the first one consists of descriptions of teachers’ work enjoyment that reveal seven themes of meanings that signify joy in teachers’ work. The themes include Supporting meanings, which are mood, power source and presence awareness, as well as Widening meanings, which are context and connectedness, rhythm and balance, opening and after heat. In the second part of the result the meanings of the phenomenon are interpreted further and conclusions are drawn. The conclusions highlight the importance of the relation between lived experiences and teachers’ work enjoyment. These themes are To be present, To feel a rhythm, To be “occupied” by work, To be both personal and professional and Teachers’ work as a tapestry of life. Enjoyment of work is fundamental; i.e. like a safe floor to stand on. The experience of joy also means opening and involves an expectant foreshadowing. Based on a safe floor, teachers can open up to different options of how to be or to act. Joy as opening extends across time and space through the longing and hope that it is connected to. In times of struggle, joy enables teachers to find their way back to what is meaningful in their work. Teachers’ work enjoyment is related to the involvement in children’s development and learning. The result shows how work enjoyment provides emotional presence in teachers’ work, both letting oneself be involved by work and involving oneself in the work. Emotional responsiveness is enjoyment of work; it makes the teachers relate to their work with openness and insight. Such responsiveness contributes with sensitivity to the whole classroom situation and towards what is essential in their work, and shows how the emotional and the rational are intertwined. This study provides an understanding of the meanings of teachers’ work enjoyment and what lived experiences of joy can imply for ordinary schoolwork. Given the results of this study it is problematic that positive emotional dimensions of teachers’ work are a relatively unexplored area. The study indicates that work enjoyment is of fundamental importance to teachers’ work.
  • Carlsson, David (författare)
  • Vad är religionslärarkunskap? En diskursanalys av trepartssamtal i lärarutbildningen
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • From an overall perspective, the aim of this thesis is to investigate teachers’ knowledge in relation to Swedish teacher education and to the school subject religious education (RE), by exploring constructions of essential knowledge for an RE teacher. Two research questions are in focus: What RE teacher knowledge is discursively constructed in teacher education supervision trialogue and in interviews with student teachers, teacher educators from school and teacher educators from university? How are those discourses constructed in supervision trialogue between student teachers, teacher educators from school and teacher educators from university? The results are based on empirical material consisting of six observations of teacher education supervision trialogues (three-way conferences) in RE and interviews with RE student teachers, RE teacher educators from upper secondary school and RE teacher educators from university, both before and after each trialogue. This empirical material is worked through and analysed using discourse analysis that mainly draws on the perspectives of Norman Fairclough. The findings give rise to an order of discourse regarding essential RE teacher knowledge. Three discourses are constructed. The dominant discourse is called “Knowing one’s subject” and refers to an RE teacher’s capacity to master the content, problematise it and both know and teach the content in an up-to-date manner. The second discourse is entitled “Knowing and meeting the pupils”. Within this discourse, it is important for a teacher in RE to be familiar with, and use, the pupils’ different pre-understandings and to communicate with the pupils in the RE classroom. The third discourse is called “Knowing oneself”. This discourse highlights the importance of being objective, reflective and being a leader. Moreover, the analysis shows that the discourses are primarily constructed as complementary in relation to one another. There seems to be a common agreement among students and teacher educators about the fact that RE teachers need to know the subject, know the pupils and know themselves. However, discursive conflicts can arise when discourses are initiated in an antagonistic manner. These RE conflicts imply neither consensus nor hegemony. Antagonistic discourses reflect aspects of dominance mainly in relation to discourses, i.e. RE teacher knowledge, but also in relation to positions.
  • Cliffordson, Christina, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Utvidgning under senare år
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Utvärdering genom uppföljning : longitudinell individforskning under ett halvsekel. - Göteborg : Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. - 978-91-7346-699-8 ; s. 67-72
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Cronqvist, Marita (författare)
  • Yrkesetik i lärarutbildning - en balanskonst
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the study is to examine and to increase the understanding of how student teachers implicitly (in action) and explicitly (through oral and written statements) express and learn professional ethics and what these expressions reveal about professional ethics. Previous research has indicated that professional ethics as phenomenon is difficult to separate and to view in the meeting between pedagogue and child. Professional ethics is often unspoken and based on personal feelings and not on formulated knowledge. In this study professional ethics is examined as the student teacher´s lived practice in the meeting with the child. The study is based on life-world theory and Reflective Life-world Research (RLR). This means for example that the phenomenon of professional ethics is examined as it present itself to student teachers and that the researcher must make efforts to be open to the phenomenon, reflect on it and to bridle preunderstandings. Ten student teachers with different orientations to preschool and elementary school have been followed, eight of them from second to fourth semester in periods when university courses and school-based education meet. Empirical data is collected from interviews, observations and different written statements. Findings are presented in three parts: Part 1 presents the issues for each individual student teacher. In part 2 the essence of professional ethics is formulated as seven elements of meaning: 1) that ambiguity requires an approach to responsibility, 2) that external factors can be obstacles, 3) that relationships and learning are interwoven, 4) that experiences should be for a child´s best interest, 5) that inclusion should be available to every child, 6) that authority should be exercised through an atmosphere of joy, respect and safety, and 7) that development occurs when theory and practice meet in reflection. Part 3 is a theoretical presentation. Reflection, self-reflection, judgment and student teachers as role models emerge as the primary tools of professional ethics. These tools are dependent on each other and intertwine cognition and emotion, experiences, theories and practice. In addition to the essence of professional ethics, my conclusion is that learning about professional ethics is based on the student teacher´s life world and takes place in a lifelong learning process. Consequently, teacher education needs to support meta-learning (learning how to learn) and build education on the student teacher´s individual life world as a resource. The student teachers as role models are developed through virtuous actions continuously being performed and through teacher educators acting as role models. Judgment and phronesis are also developed in practice through student teachers´ experiences of balancing between various factors in the complex situation. Since learning is developed in practice and from experiences, school-based education becomes valuable in order to stimulate learning. Another conclusion is that experiences must be discussed and analyzed thoroughly and systematically in education. In this process reflection is crucial. Based on the findings, a didactic model, Didethics, has been created in order to implement ethics in the same way as content (subject) and methods are included in didactics. Through asking questions, the model implements ethics, links it with content and methods and follows ethics through the planning, implementation and evaluation of the learning process.
  • Economou, Catarina (författare)
  • "I svenska två vågar jag prata mer och så" : en didaktisk studie om skolämnet svenska som andraspråk
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis takes its point of departure in recent criticism directed at the Swedish school system, especially regarding the fact that students with a foreign background do not get the same opportunities or attain the same results as Swedish-born students. The general aim of this thesis is to study and analyse multi-lingual students’ situation from a critical didactic perspective, focusing on content and teaching in Swedish as a Second Language in upper secondary school. The legitimacy of and views on the subject are examined, as well as how the students are selected and categorised. The role that fiction has in the context of the subject is also investigated and discussed. The main sources of inspiration for the theoretical framework of the study have been the works of Nussbaum and Cummins. In addition, theoretical and methodological approaches are drawn from McCormick ́s socio-cultural model, Rosenblatt’s reading forms, as well as Tengberg, and Goodlad’s curriculum theory. The methodology used in this thesis is ethnography as well as curriculum and text analysis. The thesis consists of four articles. Article one, “The secondary school subject of Swedish as a Second Language – is it necessary?” examines the subject from different angles. The second “Swedish and Swedish as A Second Language – two equal subjects?” compares and analyses the two curricula. The third “Reading Fiction in a Second Language Classroom” and fourth “Multilingual Pupils’ Reading of Doctor Glas” consider the role of fiction within the subject, examining how a group of second language learners interpret and discuss the novels and how they interact with each other in relation to the literary texts. Furthermore, the last two studies analyse what forms of reading the students use. The thesis shows that the subject Swedish as a Second Language is still subordinated to the first language subject Swedish, with fewer cognitive challenges, as the aims of the curriculum reveal. Swedish as a Second Language focuses more on linguistic forms, often in isolated contexts, and less on meaning-making, e.g. reading of fiction and personal development. It also indicates that second language learners, in this context, are competent readers, able to understand and make meaning of different novels, use different forms of reading as well as make use of their broad experiences of different cultures in relation to literary texts. Finally, the thesis concludes with a discussion about the content in a future, new and inclusive subject of Swedish that is necessary to develop in today’s multicultural and globalized society.
  • Eklöf, Anders, 1956- (författare)
  • Project work, independence and critical thinking
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis studies how students do projects in a Swedish upper secondaryschool. The students have to produce products and at the same time provethem self as independent in relation to the teachers, and negotiate therequirements of the project setting and the written instructions within thegroup. The study focuses on what comes out as problematic for the students,how they solve these dilemma situations and what resources are used in orderto do so.A choice was made only to analyse student group interaction in parts ofthe project process where the teachers were not physically present thus fillinga research gap.The empirical material was collected during three years in sex secondaryschool classes through filmed sessions of groups or pairs working with theirproject.Each of the four articles primarily focuses a special dilemma; structure,independence, instructions and critical thinking. By combining Goffman’sframe analysis with the concepts of risk and uncertainty from a Risk – societyperspective, issues related to what it means to do project work asindependent, critical 21st-century learner are illustrated and discussed.The choice to look only at situations in which students have to managewithout the aid of a physically present teacher illuminates several practicalconsequences like an unwillingness to go to the teacher and ask questions andan increased concentration on and interpretation of the written instructions. Adevelopment of Miller and Parlett’s (1974) discussion of student approach tocues are suggested. The concept of the cue choosing student are constructedin order to better respond to demands from an individualised interactionsociety. The study also emphasises how the students have to balance differentframeworks in order to be both authors and assessed students. Byimplementing a risk society perspective new ways of analysing andunderstanding independence and classroom interaction is suggested and arecontextualization of critical thinking proposed.
  • Ferry, Magnus (författare)
  • Idrottsprofilerad utbildning i spåren av en avreglerad skola
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the Swedish school sports system, a system which has evolved since the beginning of the 1970s, the prevalence of which has increased significantly at all school levels since the mid-1990s and today attracts a large number of pupils and teachers.Starting with the neoliberal discourse which has had a major impact on the development of the Swedish school system, and inspired by Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework, the reasons for the emergence of the school sports system and the reasons why schools chose to specialise in sport is described. Also examined are the pupils and teachers involved and the mechanics behind their participation.Empirically, this thesis is based on registry data, telephone interviews with principals at schools offering school sports and questionnaires responses from pupils and teachers involved in school sports.The results of the thesis suggest that the main reason school sports has become so common is closely connected to increased competition on the local school market; by offering school sports, schools have found a possible way to attract more pupils. Furthermore, the results show that the social characteristics of pupils who have been selected or have chosen to participate in school sports differs from the national population of pupils and participants in sports clubs. This suggests that the available supply of school sports is better adapted to some pupils’ social backgrounds and habitus. In relation to the teachers involved, the results show that other resources than what is normally required to become a teacher is valued in school sports. Instead of a teacher certificate, a coaching education and experiences in competitive sport is valued highly which suggests that this is recognised as symbolic capital for teachers in school sports.In conclusion this thesis demonstrates that school sports is influenced by both the fields of education and sport, and that the increased supply of school sports has implications for both fields.
  • Fredriksson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Forskning inom utbildningsekonomi
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Utvärdering genom uppföljning : longitudinell individforskning under ett halvsekel. - Göteborg : Acta universitatis Gothoburgensis. - 9789173466998
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Hedberg, Marie, 1977- (författare)
  • Idrotten sätter agendan En studie av Riksidrottsgymasietränares handlande utifrån sitt dubbla uppdrag
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study aims to describe and analyse the actions of the school coaches at the National sport upper secondary schools in light of the conditions that govern and shape the activities at those schools.The theoretical standpoints are based on Lave and Wengers' (1991) theoretical concept community of practice, and as an explanatory theoretical framework Scott's (2008) interpretation of new institutional theory is used. In the analysis of the coaches’ space for actions given the current conditions, Berg's (2014) free space theory is used.The study has a qualitative approach and the design is based on four case studies, where interviews and document analyses have been used to produce the data.The main findings can be summarized in that the cultural-cognitive conditions are very strong, whereas the regulatory and normative conditions play a less significant role. The coaches belong to a community of practice, where the sport’s inherent culture becomes the reference point for how the practice will be run, even though they are part of the school.
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