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  • Öhrn, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Avslutande diskussion
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Kön och karriär i akademin : en studie inom det utbildningsvetenskapliga fältet. - Göteborg : Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. - 978-91-7346-761-2 - 978-91-7346-761-9 (e-bok) ; s. 165-176
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Levinsson, Magnus (författare)
  • Evidens och existens. Evidensbaserad undervisning i ljuset av lärares erfarenheter.
  • 2013
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the last decade there has been a strong focus on making teaching into an evidence-based profession. The idea of evidence-based practice itself has been widely debated over the years and has been criticized, primarily for its positivistic assumptions. The many controversies that have arisen have tended to reinforce the dualism between qualitative and quantitative research, and seem to have made educational researchers generally reluctant to deal with the notion of evidence-based education. Following on from this, there is an inherent risk that professionals in schools will not be given enough resources to cope with the new demands made on their work. In the present thesis, the suggested way forward in this matter is to study evidence-based practice in practice. The aim of this thesis is to study the opportunities and limitations associated with the different models of evidence-based practice that have been proposed, by exploring professionals’ experiences of using evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. Formative assessment is used as an example to open up for an empirical approach, since it has been repeatedly identified as an evidence-based strategy. The study was conducted within the context of a local development project aimed at improving formative assessment in an upper secondary school in Sweden. In total, six teachers, who represent a mixed group of subjects, participated. To explore the teachers’ experiences in this setting, the study was based on a phenomenological approach that emphasizes collaboration between researcher and participant. The themes of lived experience that are described in the thesis invalidate the “classical model” of evidence-based practice and its expectations about how evidence can and should be used by professionals. If one considers the complexities that the teachers encountered, it is hard to see how the use of research could be made more “linear”, or how practical guidelines can raise standards of achievement. Nevertheless, it is claimed that the lived examples contribute to the present efforts to adjust the principles of evidence-based practice to educational settings. Evidence-informed practice is discussed as an alternative model and proposed as a way forward. In conclusion, the need for the evidence-based practice movement to take “critical appraisal” into account, and encourage this kind of professionalism in teachers, is deeply emphasized.
  • Alvestad, Torgeir, 1960- (författare)
  • Barnehagens relasjonelle verden - små barn som kompetente aktører i produktive forhandlinger
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The present study investigates the negotiations that take place in play among the youngest children in preschool. What are their negotiations about? How do they negotiate? What kinds of strategies do they use during their negotiations? The study has its focus on learning about fellowship through practice and experience in the negotiations that take place among the youngest preschool children. The study’s relevance also relates to the development of pedagogical practice among the youngest children in preschools. The theoretical platform is comprised of the perspectives of childhood psychology (Sommer, 2004) and childhood sociology (Corsaro, 2002). In both perspectives children are regarded as competent active in producing their own culture and active in calling on information and learning. The main concepts used in the analysis of the empirical data are ‘inter-subjectivity’ and ’the role of others’. The concepts are based on the theoretical frameworks of Daniel Stern (1991) and George Herbert Mead (1962). A group of twenty four children, thirteen girls and eleven boys, aged between two to three, were regularly video recorded. The children were enrolled in day-care groups in two of the biggest cities in Norway. The study reveals that the negotiations that take place among the children are mainly about their relationships, play materials, and the content of their play. They negotiate both verbally and nonverbally. They express their intentions towards each other with words and through gestures, glances, laughter and smiles. They use different strategies in their negotiations that relate to content and intentions. They also seem to develop or change their strategy if, for example, an initial strategy is not successful. Their strategies can be both emotional and connected to solving problems. In addition, they often use humour as a strategy. The study shows that the children who play the most with others and who know each other best, are those who are most successful in their negotiations. They often have a common focus and common intentions, as well as sharing emotional conditions in their play and negotiations. It seems that those children who are the most competent playmates are also those who are most competent in negotiations. The reason for this might be the connection between play and negotiations. To be able to play successfully demands that those sharing the play are prepared for negotiations about relations, play materials and the content of the play. However, the children’s negotiations depend on their previous experiences in this field. The more experienced the youngest children are in negotiations, the more complex and flexible their negotiations might be. A pedagogical consequence of this study is that staff in preschools should support the smallest children by giving them more time to meet and play together. This can give the children extended possibilities to develop their own strategies of negotiations in play. This in turn will support children’s learning in becoming creative, seeking and reflective individuals who create their own space of action. The experiences children are gaining through negotiations in play might also be important for other situations of negotiation, contributions and democratic practice.
  • Andishmand, Catarina, 1963- (författare)
  • Fritidshem eller servicehem? En etnografisk studie av fritidshem i tre socioekonomiskt skilda områden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In recent decades there has been decreased resources and larger groups of children in the leisure-time centres. Statistics show major differences between leisure-time centres in terms of staff education, group size, staffing levels and the number of children enrolled at each leisure-time centre. The overall aim of the thesis is to study social practices in leisure-time centres providing after-school care. Based on Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration, an ethnographic study was conducted of everyday life at leisure-time centres in three socio-economically diverse areas. Fieldwork was conducted at each leisure-time centre over the course of one semester. The study shows how children and adults talk about their neighbourhoods and schools. It also shows the actors notions about the mission of the leisure-time centres, expressed through the actors' talk and interactions, their day-to-day routines and everyday social encounters. In conclusion, the study shows that the geographic location, resources, staff skills, group sizes and children's socio-economic backgrounds together play major roles in the social practices and activities organised at the leisure-time centres. The social changes and developments of recent decades are noticeable in all leisure-time centres. Housing segregation along with freedom of school choice all had consequences for the leisure-time centres. For children attending the same leisure-time centres, the groups become increasingly homogeneous in line with the children's ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. The results also show that leisure-time centres with large groups of children have reduced opportunities to provide a good learning environment. It becomes evident that the social practices in the leisure-time centres reproduce the contextual conditions, and risk reproducing structural differences in children's lives.
  • Arvidsson, Elin (författare)
  • Physiological responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress- relation to aerobic capacity and exercise training.
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Exercise training is an effective method to promote health and to prevent development of disease. Both physical and mental health have been shown to benefit from exercise training. It has also been speculated that physical exercise might affect responses to acute psychosocial stress. In an acute stress situation, several physiological systems respond to ensure survival and it is suggested that exercise training may influence these stress systems. The main purpose of this thesis was to study physiological responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress and possible associations with aerobic capacity and exercise training. The thesis is based on four papers analysing data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The participants were healthy individuals who reported themselves as untrained at screening. The RCT included testing of acute physical and psychosocial stress. Before and after the tests, hormonal and autonomic responses were assessed. After initial testing, the participants were randomized to either an intervention- or a control group. The intervention consisted of regular aerobic exercise training conducted for six months. At follow-up, the same tests were repeated for both groups. The main findings were that most participants showed an increase in the studied variables in response to acute stress. Aerobic capacity did not seem to have any relation to hormonal or blood pressure responses to acute psychosocial stress. Neither did the subjective perception of stress at the psychosocial stress test correlate with the actual physiological response. Due to methodological issues, it was not possible to evaluate the effects of exercise training. Thus, in healthy individuals, the stress systems seem to respond adequately to acute stress, irrespective of level of aerobic capacity or type of stressor.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Knowledge at play. Studies of games as members’ matters Kunskap genom spelande. Studier av digitala spel och spelande som kunskapsdomän
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • On a general level, this thesis seeks some answers to the broad question of what one can learn from digital games. With an analytical approach informed by ethnomethodology, the main thrust of the work is an exploration of members’ matters in the area of games and gaming. In response to prevailing discussions about how, where and what gamers learn, the aim is to examine emerging forms of knowledge embedded in practices in and around digital games. The first part of the thesis addresses three themes: the question of whether leisure gaming could be understood to have transfer effects; how games are positioned in a state of restlessness and multistableness; and how the domain encompassing gaming and game development is advancing in terms of professionalization and institutionalization. The second part is comprised of three empirical studies based on two sets of video recordings: collaborative gaming in The Lord of the Rings Online, and assessment practices in game development education. The studies begin to unravel the elusive phenomena of gaming by making some gameplay practices and conventions visible. For instance, the findings suggest that there are specialized coordination practices, developed through long-term engagement with the online game. Furthermore, from the perspective of the institutional framing, it is argued that understandings from other media are not applicable in a straightforward manner, but must be carefully calibrated to matters such as game genre conventions and control over gameplay conduct. By describing the reasoning and knowledge displayed by gamers and game developers, the thesis contributes to interrelated discussions about knowledge development, currently carried out in educational science, interaction studies and game studies. In conclusion, it is suggested that digital games are establishing autonomy from other forms of entertainment media and software industries as a result of the ways games and gaming as multistable objects of knowledge have become deeply embedded in society.
  • Bergentoft, Helene, 1964- (författare)
  • Lärande av rörelseförmåga i idrott och hälsa ur ett praktikutvecklande perspektiv Movement capability. Development of teaching practice in physical education and health
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this investigation was to explore how the connections between teaching and learning about movement capability in the school subject physical education and health can be developed and transferred through research in practice development. Three research questions guided the investigation (1) What areas regarding teaching of movement capability in the school subject physical education and health have been studied in relation to teachers’ teaching assignment? (2) What necessary prerequisites are required to systematize and transfer research in practice development on movement capability between educational contexts? (3) What linkages are made visible between the treatment of learning content, the teaching design and students’ learning through variation in lesson design? Cultural-historical perspective and variation theory were used as frameworks and the methodology, mixed method research. The empirical data consists of published articles, video-observed lessons, recorded meetings with teachers and students, pre- and post-tests. The findings position the thesis in a guided teaching perspective. Moreover, findings show how the connection between teaching and learning about movement capability systematically can be developed and transferred between teaching contexts through iterative processes with revised lessons based on students’ knowledge. By the use of variation theory, understanding of the meaning of movement capability became more nuanced and itemized. The results also illustrate how the collaboration between teachers and researchers generated development of science-based teaching of movement capability.
  • Bergviken Rensfeldt, Annika, 1969- (författare)
  • Opening Higher Education: Discursive transformations of distance and higher education government
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis takes as its starting point the 1990s and early 2000s political arguments for a more open and flexible Swedish higher education system. At this time, the issues of accessibility and participation were also brought into the debate by revitalized ideals of distance education. In this study, the aim has been to denaturalize and render discursive shifts visible by examining the assumptions and reasonings of “opening higher education.” The empirical material is Swedish distance and higher education policies; Government bills, Government official reports, and replies from universities and university colleges, from 1992 to 2005. The thesis draws on a Foucauldian, post-structural understanding and approach of governmentality, focusing on how discourses take part in a governing that constitutes certain problems, solutions, and rationalities, made visible in policy. The overall purpose has been to analyze how discourses suggesting widened, flexible, and democratic participation involve regulations and orderings of students, institutions, and higher education systems. The thesis includes four studies that demonstrate how discourses of openness become parts of governing distance and higher education; how rationalities of expansion and flexibility are aligned to securing higher education systems and populations, and how institutions and individuals should adjust to flexible and personalized higher education. The first study examines how a post-war, nation-based higher education expansion is re-configured in scale, into regional, IT-based, European and global spatialities. The second study examines flexible distance education in terms of gendered spatial orderings, problematically intended for female populations. The third study explores how a certain ideal subjectivity and self-technology of personalization is embedded in the notions of IT-based Learning management systems. The last study examines the discursive shift from distance education to flexible learning and how a spatial politics and polarizations of study modes (distance/flexible), university localizations (distance/campus), and ideals of distance education (distance/closeness) are produced. The analyses reveal how liberal rationalities and self-organization of individuals, populations and spatialities take part of the governing and how orderings; differentiation of systems and exclusion of populations through spatial affiliation, gender, distance and IT study modes, market and performance logics, are produced.
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