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71.
  •  
72.
  • Hansson, Åse, 1952- (författare)
  • Ansvar för matematiklärande. Effekter av undervisningsansvar i det flerspråkiga klassrummet
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the thesis is to contribute to knowledge about crucial conditions for students' mathematics learning, and more specifically what role mathematics teaching plays in that process. Also taken into account is the effect of group composition in terms of family background or language skills, and also the relation between group composition and teaching design. The study is based on the assumption that it is essential for students’ performances if the teacher in the multilingual classroom takes responsibility for key dimensions of mathematics teaching. The study is a secondary analysis of TIMSS data, produces by IEA, from 2003 focusing on mathematics for Swedish students in 8th grade. Based on theories of learning and teaching have important dimensions of mathematics teaching for which the teacher should take responsibility been identified. It has then been investigated how these dimensions of responsibility for students’ mathematics learning are related to achievement, and also how they are related to different group-compositions. Unlike traditional models of mathematics teaching, the model developed in this study simultaneously highlights three dimensions of teacher responsibility. The first dimension concerns teacher's responsibility to actively and openly support students in their mathematics learning by for example highlighting and explaining the mathematics content, questioning and conversing with students and organizing instruction so as to create conditions for interaction and various social activities. The second dimension concerns teacher's responsibility for handing over responsibility to the students for their own construction of knowledge by for example encouraging them to their own reflections and reasoning about mathematical problems. Finally, the third dimension concerns teacher’s responsibility for highlighting the content relevant to the grade as object of teaching. The results show that when teachers through actively teaching and guidance take responsibility for students' mathematics learning it will affect the performances positively. The results also indicate that this is of particularly importance for students with weak skills in the language of instruction. However, the results show that mathematics education in Sweden is characterized by pedagogical segregation. In groups where many students are likely to have needs for support, teachers take a less responsibility for students’ learning than is done in other groups. The thesis discusses that pedagogical segregation and the responsibility that in Sweden for a long time has been put on the students themselves for their mathematics learning may have contributed to the negative knowledge development in mathematics
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73.
  • Hasselskog, Peter, 1960- (författare)
  • Slöjdlärares förhållningssätt i undervisningen
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingsarbetets syfte är att synliggöra slöjdlärares skilda förhållningssätt i undervisningen. Hur lärare genomför sin undervisning och agerar i förhållande till sina elever påverkar vad eleverna ges möjlighet att lära. Olikheter mellan lärare relaterar också till att slöjdundervisningen skall vara likvärdig. Forskningen inom det slöjdpedagogiska/didaktiska fältet är sparsam. Kännedom om hur slöjdundervisning utöver den man själv har erfarenhet av är begränsad. Slöjdundervisning har studerats med hjälpa av lärare och elevers beskrivningar genom dagböcker. Dessutom har den muntliga kommunikationen mellan lärare och elever analyserats med hjälp av mp3-inspelningar. Resultatet beskrivs dels i form av fyra konstruerade idealtyper: Serviceman, Instruktör, Handledare och Pedagog. Dels i form av tre huvudsakliga förhållnings¬sätt hos slöjdlärarna: Lärare som lägger fokus på instruktion för nästa steg i elevernas arbete, lärare med fokus på att skapa förståelse hos eleverna, och lärare som i första hand stöttar eleverna genom att hjälpa till med det eleverna ber om. I arbetet diskuteras hur de identifierade förhållningssätten påverkar förutsättningarna för elevernas lärande. Detta beskrivs bland annat i form av olika fokus på eller förutsättningar att lära om, i, med och genom slöjdundervisningen. Den studerade undervisningen utmärks av att vara individualiserad, elevernas inflytande och engagemang är generellt stort. I förhållande till likvärdighet möjliggörs därigenom en anpassning till olika elevers förutsättningar. Däremot ges elevernas egna initiativ och ansvarstagande varierande utrymme beroende på lärarens förhållningssätt. Studien väcker också frågor om hur slöjdlärarna uppmärksammar eleverna på vad som lärs, hur det lärs och hur det relaterar till målen för slöjdundervisningen.
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74.
  • Hedström, Pernilla (författare)
  • Hälsocoach i skolan - En utvärderande fallstudie av en hälsofrämjande intervention
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Today young school children in Sweden spend less time taking part in physical activities, compared to what they did 15-20 years ago. Physical activity is a major health component, which can make children maintain or increase their health. Earlier research has shown that a minimum of 60-90 minutes a day of physical activity is needed for young children to develop good health. The purpose of this study is to explore a longitudinal (two years) health coach intervention, focusing on the effects and experiences of expanded physical activities in an elementary school, managed by a health coach. The research team planned the health coach intervention based on the theoretical model; Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAPM). In the study, quantitative and qualitative data have been collected over a period of two years. Analysis has shown that the health promotion activities attracted even those children who usually do not like the PE classes. These children like playful activities where they can feel athletic competent and involved. The Health Coach project did not significantly improve the students' healthy lifestyles, at least not in the short term, even if the children had gained new insights about how to promote their own health. This study has shown that a health coach in school could be needed, but this position needs to be full-time, because it requires more efforts to increase children's physical activity. It is also important that the health coach has the right qualification and receive support from the head master and from the class teachers.
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75.
  • Hellman, Anette, 1963- (författare)
  • Kan Batman vara rosa? Förhandlingar om pojkighet och normalitet på en förskola
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Title: Have you Ever Seen a Pink Batman? Negotiating Boyishness and Normality at a Preschool. Language: Swedish with a summary in English Keywords: Performativity, gender, masculinity, normality, pre- school, children, negotiation ISBN: 978-91-7346-689-9 Gender research has long argued that gender is constructed through social processes. This study explores how this is done among children at pre-school. To achieve this objective the study focuses how norms related to boyishness was negotiated among children in their everyday activities. The theoretical framework rests on concepts from post structural feminist theory, queer theory and critical masculinity research. The material is produced through ethnographic method and two years of field work. At preschool girls and boys acted in a wide variety of different ways not distinctly connected to their gendered identities. One main finding in the study is that out of this maze of practices certain acts are made visible and categorized as typical boyish or girlish. Included in these processes of categorization are assumptions about certain behavior as more correct and natural for different sexes, resulting in discursive positions such as “typical” boys, for example. However, this position is ascribed low status both among teachers and other children. The most attractive position is described as the ”competent child”. When norms about gender differences are made relevant these are foremost manifested in negotiations about specific markers and signifiers, such as voices, movements, specific haircuts, colors and toys. The negotiations did usually not concern if a boy or girl could be part of a play but if the appropriate signifiers were used. The issue was not if a girl could take the position of Batman but whether he could wear pink or not. In that way one can say that construing gender preceded actual experiences of sexually defined bodies. In the study it is concluded that the importance of belonging to a specific gender or sex is accentuated in specific spaces, but less relevant in other. The difference between the spaces lies in how they are opened or closed to a normative gaze. This gendered gaze is manifested not only by actually being seen by teachers and children but also in architecture. To evade this normative gaze children created “secret” spaces either by building small shelters or negotiating specific rooms of friendship. A further conclusion is that when age is emphasized norms about gender are equally stressed. The notion of “being a baby” consisted a very strong marker to police the border between being a sexual subject or not. The study brings out the crucial importance age have also for small children in processes of negotiating and naturalizing two different sexes and the importance of being gendered to be understood and normal.
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76.
  • Hellman, Annika (författare)
  • Visuella möjlighetsrum. Gymnasieelevers subjektsskapande i bild och medieundervisning
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • De demokratiska aspekterna av utbildning får allt mindre plats i skolan. En neoliberal logik som försvårar för kreativa processer att ta plats i skolan har genom ett ensidigt fokus på effektivitet och målstyrning kommit att dominera utbildningssystemet. I denna avhandling riktas intresset mot gymnasieelevers perspektiv på bild och medieundervisning. Det gäller såväl synliggörandet av elevers röster, som bild och medieämnens demokratiserande potentialer. Genom elevers videodagböcker och en visuell etnografisk klassrumstudie syftar avhandlingen till att undersöka elevers subjektsskapande i bild och medieundervisning på gymnasiet. Teoretiskt tar avhandlingen utgångspunkt i både poststrukturalistiska och posthumanistiska teorier. Kombinationen av dessa teorier synliggör elevers subjektsskapande som diskursiv och könad subjektivering, samt som tillblivelser i föränderliga assemblage med materialitet. Studien visar att undervisning med bild och media har en unik demokratisk och pedagogisk potential. Genom estetiska praktiker kan elever uttrycka motstånd, åsikter och kritik, samtidigt som deras upplevelser, erfarenheter och kunskaper synliggörs. Samtidigt visar studien elevers motstånd mot undervisningen, och en begränsad tillgång till maskulina subjektspositioner i bildpedagogisk praktik. Elevpositioner produceras och reproduceras i gymnasieskolan, samtidigt som elevpositioner kan differentieras och utmanas genom elevers arbete med bild och media. Elevers visuella gestaltningar innebär ett materialiserat skillnadsskapande som är tätt sammanflätat med differentiering av tänkande, omvärldsuppfattningar och självet. Vidare innebär elevers visuella gestaltande ett kreativt skillnadsskapande och idémässiga potentialer som berör det som kan komma att aktualiseras och materialiseras i framtiden.
77.
  • Holmberg, Christopher, 1984- (författare)
  • Food, body weight, and health among adolescents in the digital age: An explorative study from a health promotion perspective
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to explore adolescents’ relationship with food, body weight, and health communication in online digital media, as well as how adolescents experience participating in a health promotion intervention regarding food and physical activity habits. Health promotion as a research area served three purposes: to inform the research questions, to direct the data collection, and to identify implications from the research findings. The four included studies explored how adolescents portray food in a widely used image-sharing application, why and how adolescents in treatment for obesity engaged with online health-related information, and how these adolescents experienced presenting themselves on social media. The fourth study explored adolescents’ experiences of participating in a health promoting intervention, focusing on their experiences of using a social media group within the intervention. Overall, the findings suggest that food is a significant means of adolescents’ online self-presentation practices. Food imagery was most often communicated in a positive way, associated with commercial elements, and often depicting high-calorie foods. Adolescents with obesity experienced this user-generated food content as challenging for their weight management. These findings also question the separation between media and information content as stated in the original definition of eHealth literacy. The findings also emphasize a need to explore the adolescents’ own experiences of acceptability of using social media in health promotion practices, with regards to the type of social media and in what context it was or could be used.
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78.
  • Johannesson, Elias, 1972- (författare)
  • The Dynamic Development of Cognitive and Socioemotional Traits and Their Effects on School Grades and Risk of Unemployment A Test of the Investment Theory
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis is to examine the dynamic development of cognitive and socioemotional traits and how these traits influence academic achievement and predict risk of unemployment. Data was retrieved from the Evaluation Through Following-up (ETF) database. The data consists of 9,080 students born in 1972, who answered a questionnaire and completed cognitive ability tests in 3rd and 6th grade. In addition, register-based data was used for students’ grades and for various background variables. All analyses were conducted using structural equation modelling (SEM). The dynamic development of the relationships between cognitive and socioemotional traits between 3rd and 6th grade is driven by cognitive ability factors. Support was found for Cattell’s investment hypothesis, which states that fluid cognitive ability (Gf) influences development of crystallized cognitive ability (Gc). No influence of socioemotional traits on either cognitive traits or socioemotional traits was found. The evidence of a Gc reading achievement trait complex was weak. Furthermore, both cognitive and socioemotional traits are related to academic achievement. In the prediction of unemployment risk, effects of almost all cognitive and socioemotional traits are captured by grades. Gc has both a direct effect on unemployment risk and an indirect effect via grades on unemployment risk. All other effects of socioemotional traits and Gf are related to the risk of unemployment via academic achievement. The strongest determinant of unemployment risk is academic achievement, which has a protective effect on the risk of unemployment.
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79.
  • Johansson, Stefan, 1980- (författare)
  • On the Validity of Reading Assessments: Relationships Between Teacher Judgements, External Tests and Pupil Self-Assessments
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis is to examine validity issues in different forms of assessments; teacher judgements, external tests, and pupil self-assessment in Swedish primary schools. The data used were selected from a large-scale study––PIRLS 2001––in which more than 11000 pupils and some 700 teachers from grades 3 and 4 participated. The primary method used in the secondary analyses to investigate validity issues of the assessment forms is multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with latent variables. An argument-based approach to validity was adopted, where possible weaknesses in assessment forms were addressed. A fairly high degree of correspondence between teacher judgements and test results was found within classrooms with a correlation of .65 being obtained for 3rd graders, a finding well in line with documented results in previous research. Grade 3 teachers’ judgements correlated higher than those of grade 4 teachers. The longer period of time spent with the pupils, as well as their different education, were suggested as plausible explanations. Gender and socioeconomic status (SES) of the pupils showed a significant effect on the teacher judgements, in that girls and pupils with higher SES received higher judgements from teachers than test results accounted for. Teachers with higher levels of formal competence were shown to have pupils with higher achievement levels. Pupil achievement was measured with both teacher judgements and PIRLS test results. Furthermore, higher correspondence between judgements and test-results was demonstrated for teachers with higher levels of competence. Comparisons of classroom achievement were shown to be problematic with the use of teachers’ judgements. The judgements reflected different achievement levels, despite the fact that test-results indicated similar performance levels across classrooms. Pupil self-assessments correlated slightly lower to both teacher judgement and to test results, than did teacher judgements and test results. However, in spite of their young age, pupils assessed their knowledge and skills in the reading domain relatively well. No differences in self-assessments were found for pupils of different gender or SES. In summary, a conclusion of the studies on the three forms of assessment was that all have certain limitations. Strengths and weaknesses of the different assessment forms were discussed.
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80.
  • Jonsson, Linus, 1986- (författare)
  • An empowerment-based school physical activity intervention with adolescents in a disadvantaged community: A transformative mixed methods investigation
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • It is important for the health of adolescents to engage in regular physical activity. The majority of adolescents do not, however, engage in sufficient physical activity to meet contemporary guidelines, and adolescents of low socioeconomic status appear to be less physically active compared to adolescents of high socioeconomic status. As such, the overall aim of this thesis is twofold. First, the thesis aims to gain insight into adolescents’, from a multicultural community of low socioeconomic status, views on physical activity. Second, the thesis aims to describe and problematize the development and implementation of an empowerment-based school intervention, in a Swedish multicultural community of low socioeconomic status, and to evaluate the effects of the intervention focusing on basic needs satisfaction, motivation, and objectively measured physical activity. This compilation thesis is based on four papers and is written within the ‘How-to-Act?’-project which has its starting point in a two-year empowerment-based school intervention. For the purpose of the ‘How-to-Act?’-project, one intervention school (n=54 7th graders) and two control schools (n=60 7th graders), situated in a multicultural area of low socioeconomic status in Gothenburg, were recruited. For paper I and II, focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (n=53) in the intervention school, before implementation of the intervention, to illuminate what they convey concerning factors that facilitate respectively undermine their physical activity. Paper III describes and problematizes the development and implementation of the empowerment-based school intervention, which was continuously developed and implemented through cooperation and shared decision making, focusing on physical activity. For paper IV physical activity was measured with accelerometers and basic needs satisfaction and motivation through questionnaires at baseline (7th grade), midpoint (8th grade), and endpoint (9th grade), to evaluate the effects of the intervention. On the one hand, the adolescents’ voices illuminated that, within their environment, it is difficult to establish healthy physical activity habits. More specifically, the adolescents expressed a profound awareness of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their physical activity, and several stereotypical gender norms were highlighted as undermining the girls’ physical activity. On the other hand, the adolescents mentioned that they enjoyed engaging in physical activity. According to the adolescents, enjoyment related to physical activity was promoted through variation and options, experiencing and developing physical skills, and the presence of peers. The adolescents also suggested that social support facilitated their physical activity, and proposed some ideas on how the school could become more supportive of their physical activity. Through the empowerment-based school intervention, the adolescents were offered opportunities to engage in a variety of physical activities and to assess and critically reflect upon health-related information and recommendations. Further, the intervention involved the adolescents in the decision-making process and thus, arguably, facilitated participation and empowerment. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of the intervention led to a number of ethical dilemmas that required cautious consideration. During the course of the two-year intervention, there was a credible decrease in controlled motivation, autonomous motivation, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. There were no credible effects of the intervention on controlled motivation, autonomous motivation, or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Future school-based physical activity interventions, in multicultural areas of low socioeconomic status, are recommended to include multidimensional intervention approaches across contexts to counteract the decline in physical activity during adolescence and to achieve lasting change in adolescents’ physical activity.
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