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  • Fredriksson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Forskning inom utbildningsekonomi
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Utvärdering genom uppföljning : longitudinell individforskning under ett halvsekel. - Göteborg : Acta universitatis Gothoburgensis. - 9789173466998
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Gustavsson, Susanne (författare)
  • Motstånd och mening : Innebörd i blivande lärares seminariesamtal
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Both historically and in our own time the teacher education has been discussed and changed to match current traditions and intentions. There is an ongoing debate about the scientifi c basis of teacher education and the relation to professional basis. The aim with this study is to develop understanding for student teachers’ introduction to education and profession. The study is carried out against the background of the provisions and assumptions that characterise an academic professional education, and in particular teacher education, such as the relationship between education and the profession, the scientifi c basis and professional basis, the fi eld-based and college-based educational practice. The point of departure is that teacher education cannot be dissociated from the practice and theory of the profession, and in addition that the expression of education must be understood through the student’s experience and interpretation. The overall aim of the study, starting out from the nature and objectives of the academic professional education, is to understand the field of tension expressed in this experience.During the study, dialogues with students were observed at an early stage in their education. These dialogues consisted of four authentic seminars and twenty-three subsequent stimulated recall-inspired interviews with individual students. Content of the dialogues and seminars are student teachers’ experiences from fi eld-based and college-based education. The method of the studyis based on critical hermeneutics with reference to Paul Ricoeur.The result shows the two roles of the student, as participant and as observer. The students also consider themselves as students and at the same time as future teachers. Fields of tension are identifi ed between what is recognisable and a talk of changes; between position and investigation; and between progression and process. Professional teachers do not seem as masters, they are instead objects for criticism. The early experience of the profession does not harmonise with the content of the education. Furthermore, the student appears to lack the tools to examine critically and understand both the content offered in the education and the theory and practice of the profession.
  • Hedberg, Berith (författare)
  • Decision Making and Communication : Aspects of Nursing Competence
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis is to understand the conditions and prerequisites of nurses’ decision making on nursing measures and their communication in multiparty talk, activities nurses manage in their work. By analysing both environmental elements in nursing practice and how experienced nurses manage decision-making processes, the intention has been to understand how nurses’ competence occurs and is expressed in nursing practice. A specific problem concerns the attention given to the patients’ right to participate in co-operative care planning meetings when decisions are made about their further care and how the conditions for patient involvement and influence become visible in multiparty talk.In the theoretical framework, it is argued that competence generally speaking concerns the individual’s potential capacity for action in relation to a certain task, situation and context. The expectations as regards nursing competence at work are expressed in work regulations and recommendations; however, the content of nursing education and practice constitutes powerful institutional frames, influencing how nurses are able to perform their tasks. The individual’s cognitive ability, the context-specific and collaborative knowledge, can be seen as additionally elements of nursing competence.The thesis is based on two different datasets which have generated four sub-studies. Studies I and II focus on the nurses’ decision-making process and the influence of the simultaneous presence of environmental elements. The empirical data consist of 30 hours of participant observation and inter-views with 6 experienced nurses at three different wards. Studies III and IV concern nurses involve-ment in a dynamic communicative process with co-workers, patients and, at times, their relatives including data from audio-recordings of 14 co-operative care planning sessions concerning stroke survivors.Throughout the four studies, a gap is visible between nurses’ decision making and communication in practice and the expectations of how nurses should manage these activities related to work regulations and the goals formulated in the nursing educational programs. How nurses make their decisions depends on their competence, the complexity of the task and how much they involve themselves in talk with others. The medical perspective dominates when nurses give priority to what should and can be done in nursing activities. As regards patients’ participation in co-operative care planning meetings, the professionals dominate the discourse space. The nurses never openly invited the patients to elicit their own perspective of their illness or care planning. The nurses mostly suggest-ed opinions or asked the patients to confirm these opinions. There is, however a hidden power agenda when patients and relatives try to reach a desired decision. The same phenomenon may occur when patients are in alliances with health care professionals. The above-mentioned issues are discussed in the light of nursing competence and the need for nurses to discuss what it means to be a nurse in relation to institutional frames of power relationships. If the official regulations and recommendations are to be satisfied, there is an urgent need for increased collaboration between nurses, the health care system and the nursing education programs.
  • Hedberg, Marie, 1977- (författare)
  • Idrotten sätter agendan En studie av Riksidrottsgymasietränares handlande utifrån sitt dubbla uppdrag
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study aims to describe and analyse the actions of the school coaches at the National sport upper secondary schools in light of the conditions that govern and shape the activities at those schools.The theoretical standpoints are based on Lave and Wengers' (1991) theoretical concept community of practice, and as an explanatory theoretical framework Scott's (2008) interpretation of new institutional theory is used. In the analysis of the coaches’ space for actions given the current conditions, Berg's (2014) free space theory is used.The study has a qualitative approach and the design is based on four case studies, where interviews and document analyses have been used to produce the data.The main findings can be summarized in that the cultural-cognitive conditions are very strong, whereas the regulatory and normative conditions play a less significant role. The coaches belong to a community of practice, where the sport’s inherent culture becomes the reference point for how the practice will be run, even though they are part of the school.
  • Hellström Muhli, Ulla (författare)
  • Att överbrygga perspektiv : En studie av behovsbedömningssamtal inom äldreinriktat socialt arbete
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to describe and analyse institutional ractice in need assessment dialogues. The questions were: How are the dialogues structured? How is the professional dialogue content combined with: the institutional, traditional and personal perspectives? How are communicative problems solved? Mapping, assessing and deciding on social welfare or other aid measures for elderly people is one part of the concretisation of the elderly care policy in the encounter with the individual citizen. This concretisation is not just a simple transfer of political goals but, rather, contains implications for elderly care institutions as a whole, for elderly oriented social work and for processing. Examples of such implications are demands on knowledge growth in elderly oriented social work and demands on professional practice. The institutional actors, the case officers, serve an important purpose for the elderly in the encounter with elderly care. The need assessment dialogue between case officers and elderly persons is thus seen as a communicative activity or practice through which they (re)produce elderly care. It is this that the study attempts to give shape to. The project has its theoretical underpinning in social constructionism and in dialogism, which explain people’s everyday actions and interaction and how people make their knowledge andassumptions comprehensible. The social constructionist theory also explains how social institutions are created and maintained in people’s interaction in institutional talk. Data have been collected in the form of video recordings of 16 need assessment meetings and consist of about 12 hours of recorded need assessment dialogues. Content analyses of interactive courses of events in need assessment dialogues have been performed. The results show that phases constitute the structure of the dialogues and make them comprehensible. The phases serve different functions in the need assessment dialogues. The phase structure can be seen as a sub activity, which has specific aims and solves different tasks that are central to the case officer’s work. The phase structure consists of: opening, framing, mapping of needs, information and counselling, the turning-point in the dialogue and conclusion. A prominent feature of the study is the relationship between institutional order and professional practice. This relationship is the basis of different dilemmas in the encounter with the client. The key task facing the case officer is to bridge these dilemmas by means of different strategies. The case officer’s professional task in need assessments s not only to assess care requirements but also to make the institutional prerequisites of the aid measures comprehensible to the client and to transform care requirements into institutional bstractions. The knowledge contribution consists of an understanding of the complexity of the dialogue and how meaning and perspectives in the dialogue are produced interactively in different ways. An important knowledge contribution is the importance of communication in elderly oriented social work. This is a key factor in establishing a working relationship between the client and the case officer. It is also a key factor in the case officer’s professional practice.
  • Hjalmarsson, Marie, 1961- (författare)
  • Lojalitet och motstånd anställdas agerande i ett föränderligt hemtjänstarbete
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis aims to shed light on the dynamics and the complexity in the relationship between power and resistance in labour, from an employee-perspective. This is done by describing and analyzing how a group of employees in municipal home help services interpret and make use of their possibilities to act in relation to a process of change, initiated by the management, involving new technology. Hand-held computers were implemented by the management and the home helps were supposed to use them to register their daily work performance. A theoretical framework based on power and resistance in accordance with Michel Foucault and Jon McKenzie, together with Ackroyd & Thompson’s concept of self-organization, is used. The study has an ethnographic approach. The empirical material is based on a combination of participant observation, interviews and document analysis. Two major periods of observations were conducted. The first period focused on understanding the work performance and its routines. During the second period, the use of (or rather attempts to use) the hand-held computers was in focus. The interviews with 11 home helps focused on the meaning and content of their work with regards to work performance, skills and knowledge, possibilities and limitations and their opinions of the ICT project. Five management representatives, a local councillor, a software consultant and a union representative were also interviewed in order to grasp a management perspective. The results show a pattern in the actions of the home helps. It is a rational way of acting where adaptability, responsibility and reliability permeate thoughts and actions. It functions as a premise for how the home helps interpret their possibilities to act at work. They address their loyalty in several directions: to the care recipients, but also to their colleagues, to the management and to the organization as such. This rationality of loyalty is reproduced by the home helps but also by the management. The home helps are to a certain extent aware of the loyalties in their actions and every so often they use them in a conscious way. They reflect on how strong the loyalty should be and towards whom or what it should be directed. The actions of the home helps at work in general and in relation to the ICT project in particular is characterised by loyalty and consent rather than by formal resistance. The home helps don’t show any formal resistance but they do self-organization. They strive towards a relative autonomy and to maintain their dignity. This way of acting is however related to the rationality of loyalty that has a regulating influence on their informal resistance. Despite the limited and informal character of the self-organization of the home helps, it can be considered subversive. It has a possibility of undermining the exercise of power and it creates an alternative professional identity to the one offered by the management
  • Hjalmarsson, Maria (författare)
  • Lärarprofessionens genusordning En studie av lärares uppfattningar om arbetsuppgifter, kompetens och förväntningar
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis presents a study of the gender order of the teaching profession. It focuses on how teachers perceive meanings of the gender order in their work. It also focuses how the gender order is expressed in the interviewees’ understandings and interpretations of their assignment and work.The theoretical concept gender contract (Hirdmans, 1988, 2007) is used to interpret and analyse how teachers apprehend their work tasks and how these are carried out. Lindgrens (1985, 1999) studies of majority- and minority positions at a work place are relevant as that the amount of women and men in schools’ lower grades differ. The theoretical concept gender regime (Connell, 1996) is used to study how the overall gender order is expressed in different schools. Connell (1999) describe a hierarchy of masculinities which is used as a tool to understand how the male teachers reason about expectations from others.The thesis is primarily based on an interview study among fourteen teachers in grade three to five in an urban municipality. Some data from a questionnaire, answered by approximately 600 teachers who work with children 10-12 years old, are also included.Results show that social dimensions are intervened with pedagogic-didactic aspects, but at the same time talked about as disturbing teachers’ main assignment. Social dimensions are described as taking a lot of teachers’ time and energy, but also as “that all round”. Especially the male teachers discuss aspects as caring and relationships to pupils and describe these aspects as a source to challenge in work. From a gender perspective, it is interesting to note that it is mostly female coded aspects, i.e. relationships that are described as “that all around”. Contact with parents is highly emphasized and influenced by aspects of ethnicity. Several teachers state that norms in the pupils’ home environment and norms in school differ. Because of this, contact with parents includes dilemmas.Partly because of that, it can be hard to delimit the teacher role from the private role.Even if tasks related to social dimensions in work are described as “that all around”, the importance of the teachers’ social competence is emphasized. The teachers maintain that competence in work does not have anything to do with the gender of the teacher. Especially younger teachers tend to emphasize abilities and competences of the individual. At the same time, it seems that women and men partly handle different kinds of tasks and that certain tasks get gender coded, which corresponds to the regulations of the gender contract through which the gender order is established.Several male teachers state that they have worked as teachers for smaller groups of pupils with special needs, without having the relevant educational background. These men also told that they were recruited to handle instable groups of pupils. Thereby, they are expected to behave like “real men”, i.e. perform a hegemonic masculinity, and if they don’t they run a risk to be seen as unmanly. Feelings of shame are discussed only by male teachers. This shows that not only women but also men “suffer” of the gender order.The male teachers dwell upon strong expectations from parents to “uphold peace and quiet” in a way that female teachers don’t. However, when focusing the corresponding theme in the questionnaire, the picture changes. 91% (n=366) of the female teachers and 86% (n=235) of the male teachers feel to a high degree expectations from parents to “uphold peace and quiet”.
  • Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne (författare)
  • Attitudes towards Swedish comprehensive school: comparisons over time and between classrooms in grade 6
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main aim of the study is to understand student attitudes towards different aspects of school using data from the late 1960s and 35 years later, and to analyze the impact both from teachers and students on classroom climate. Another important aim in order to accomplish this is to develop suitable instruments and methods. The starting point of the empirical work was a 40-item attitude questionnaire that was used in the Didactical Process Analysis (DPA) project conducted in Göteborg in the late... mer 1960s, which comprised 60 classrooms and 1600 grade 6 students. This attitude questionnaire was reanalyzed using two-level confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the reanalysis resulting in seven factors describing differences in student attitudes within classrooms, three factors describing attitude differences between classrooms. The original 40-item questionnaire was expanded with 31 new items concerning school environment, teaching and interaction between the students, and between the teacher and the students. This instrument was administered to 78 classes, with the participation of 1696 students and 78 teachers in Göteborg. The first objective was to compare the attitudes of students now with the DPA investigation 35 years ago using identical items. The analysis focused both on item-level data and on factor scores computed from the two-level CFA model. The results showed a general improvement in attitudes. A differentiated picture was seen on the within-class level with significant changes in peer relational factors but not in school factors. The present curriculum with its focus on interaction aspects of learning may have implemented changes in relational patterns and created a more positive student attitude. On between-class level all three factors had increased their levels of attitudes, but the variation among classes was wide. The second objective was to analyze differences between the points of view of students and their teachers, and to analyze which factors explained classroom differences in attitudes. Differences in teacher-student perspectives were seen on item level. The students’ attitudes emphasized the importance of positive interaction with both teacher and peers. Teachers noted the level of work ambitions, stress and disturbance among students. The factors of most importance for classroom differences in attitudes concerning work atmosphere and social relations were a sensible management of deviancy, and creation of a safe and orderly environment.
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