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  • Zimmerman, Fredrik (författare)
  • Det tillåtande och det begränsande En studie om pojkars syn på studier och ungdomars normer kring maskulinitet
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Att pojkar generellt presterar sämre än flickor i skolan har ofta hävdats ha en relation till normer kring maskulinitet. Normer kring maskulinitetens negativa inverkan på studievanor har observerats på skolor med en dominerande ”antipluggkultur” eller en dominerande ”ingen ansträngningskultur” bland pojkarna. Vidare har det på dessa skolor uppmärksammats att denna typ av normer även har en negativ inverkan på flickors möjligheter att prestera i skolan. Denna avhandling har sitt fokus på frågan om pojkars syn på studier har en relation med normer kring maskulinitet, samt om förmågan att studera är könad. Dessa frågor har undersökts utifrån en etnografisk ansats på en högstadieskola.Den valda skolan skiljer sig mot skolor med en dominerande ”antipluggkultur” eller en dominerande ”ingen ansträngningskultur”, då en ”pluggkultur” istället dominerar bland pojkarna. Inom denna ”pluggkultur” reproduceras normer som är mer tillåtande vad gäller flickors och pojkars studerande. Att pojkarna anser att man ska studera ambitiöst medför att handlingen ”studera ambitiöst” inte ses som feminin och därför behöver inte pojkarna iscensätta sin maskulinitet genom att ta avstånd från studier, något som är fallet inom exempelvis en ”antipluggkultur”. Dock visar studien att ”pluggkulturen” till trots, reproduceras samtidigt parallella och motsägelsefulla normer som könar förmågan att studera, det vill säga normer som begränsar pojkars möjlighet att studera ambitiöst.
  • Öhrn, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Avslutande diskussion
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Kön och karriär i akademin : en studie inom det utbildningsvetenskapliga fältet. - Göteborg : Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. - 978-91-7346-761-2 - 978-91-7346-761-9 (e-bok) ; s. 165-176
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Levinsson, Magnus (författare)
  • Evidens och existens. Evidensbaserad undervisning i ljuset av lärares erfarenheter.
  • 2013
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the last decade there has been a strong focus on making teaching into an evidence-based profession. The idea of evidence-based practice itself has been widely debated over the years and has been criticized, primarily for its positivistic assumptions. The many controversies that have arisen have tended to reinforce the dualism between qualitative and quantitative research, and seem to have made educational researchers generally reluctant to deal with the notion of evidence-based education. Following on from this, there is an inherent risk that professionals in schools will not be given enough resources to cope with the new demands made on their work. In the present thesis, the suggested way forward in this matter is to study evidence-based practice in practice. The aim of this thesis is to study the opportunities and limitations associated with the different models of evidence-based practice that have been proposed, by exploring professionals’ experiences of using evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. Formative assessment is used as an example to open up for an empirical approach, since it has been repeatedly identified as an evidence-based strategy. The study was conducted within the context of a local development project aimed at improving formative assessment in an upper secondary school in Sweden. In total, six teachers, who represent a mixed group of subjects, participated. To explore the teachers’ experiences in this setting, the study was based on a phenomenological approach that emphasizes collaboration between researcher and participant. The themes of lived experience that are described in the thesis invalidate the “classical model” of evidence-based practice and its expectations about how evidence can and should be used by professionals. If one considers the complexities that the teachers encountered, it is hard to see how the use of research could be made more “linear”, or how practical guidelines can raise standards of achievement. Nevertheless, it is claimed that the lived examples contribute to the present efforts to adjust the principles of evidence-based practice to educational settings. Evidence-informed practice is discussed as an alternative model and proposed as a way forward. In conclusion, the need for the evidence-based practice movement to take “critical appraisal” into account, and encourage this kind of professionalism in teachers, is deeply emphasized.
  • Ahlberg, Kristina, 1954- (författare)
  • Synvändor : universitetsstudenters berättelser om kvalitativa förändringar av sätt att erfara situationers mening under utbildningspraktik
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main purpose of this study has been to examine the questions: Do people experience view-turns? Can they describe them? What do the processes signify? A narrative method, with an open and dual-focussed interview question to students of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy in their final term, was used to obtain accounts of university students? experiences of changing ways of experiencing during educational placement. The accounts revealed that all interviewed students except one had found it meaningful and possible to describe experienced processes of changing ways of experiencing. The accounts were analysed phenomenographically and two qualitatively different main categories were discerned, which were drawn directly from the students? descriptions: Addition of Something New, with subcategories Information and Result, and Restructuring of Awareness, with subcategories Figure/Ground, Difference/Similarity, Perspective and Whole/Part. Categorisation of the accounts was verified in a three-stage interjudge reliability test with three independent assessors. Significant difference between placing in the two main categories was found between accounts by students of medicine and those by students of nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy. Medical students? accounts were categorised predominantly as addition of something new, whilst accounts from nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students were categorised almost exclusively as restructuring of awareness. This difference was elucidated by theoretical and historical connection to the Natural Attitude and the Philosophical Attitude described within early phenomenology. The described view-turns were theoretically elucidated with phenomenology, pragmatic meaning formation theory and gestalt theory. The theories, which each give a partial understanding of view-turns, all fail however to explain fully the findings of this study. Contradictions amongst the single-dimensional theoretical understandings offered are suggested to be reconciled through the variation theory of learning, by the premise of co-constitution of experiencing and the experienced. An element of contradiction is seen to be integral to dynamic processes of learning. The research question?s simultaneous focussing on two ways of experiencing something appears to have been decisive in revealing dynamic processes of changing ways of experiencing as well as way of experiencing.
  • Alvestad, Torgeir, 1960- (författare)
  • Barnehagens relasjonelle verden - små barn som kompetente aktører i produktive forhandlinger
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The present study investigates the negotiations that take place in play among the youngest children in preschool. What are their negotiations about? How do they negotiate? What kinds of strategies do they use during their negotiations? The study has its focus on learning about fellowship through practice and experience in the negotiations that take place among the youngest preschool children. The study’s relevance also relates to the development of pedagogical practice among the youngest children in preschools. The theoretical platform is comprised of the perspectives of childhood psychology (Sommer, 2004) and childhood sociology (Corsaro, 2002). In both perspectives children are regarded as competent active in producing their own culture and active in calling on information and learning. The main concepts used in the analysis of the empirical data are ‘inter-subjectivity’ and ’the role of others’. The concepts are based on the theoretical frameworks of Daniel Stern (1991) and George Herbert Mead (1962). A group of twenty four children, thirteen girls and eleven boys, aged between two to three, were regularly video recorded. The children were enrolled in day-care groups in two of the biggest cities in Norway. The study reveals that the negotiations that take place among the children are mainly about their relationships, play materials, and the content of their play. They negotiate both verbally and nonverbally. They express their intentions towards each other with words and through gestures, glances, laughter and smiles. They use different strategies in their negotiations that relate to content and intentions. They also seem to develop or change their strategy if, for example, an initial strategy is not successful. Their strategies can be both emotional and connected to solving problems. In addition, they often use humour as a strategy. The study shows that the children who play the most with others and who know each other best, are those who are most successful in their negotiations. They often have a common focus and common intentions, as well as sharing emotional conditions in their play and negotiations. It seems that those children who are the most competent playmates are also those who are most competent in negotiations. The reason for this might be the connection between play and negotiations. To be able to play successfully demands that those sharing the play are prepared for negotiations about relations, play materials and the content of the play. However, the children’s negotiations depend on their previous experiences in this field. The more experienced the youngest children are in negotiations, the more complex and flexible their negotiations might be. A pedagogical consequence of this study is that staff in preschools should support the smallest children by giving them more time to meet and play together. This can give the children extended possibilities to develop their own strategies of negotiations in play. This in turn will support children’s learning in becoming creative, seeking and reflective individuals who create their own space of action. The experiences children are gaining through negotiations in play might also be important for other situations of negotiation, contributions and democratic practice.
  • Andishmand, Catarina, 1963- (författare)
  • Fritidshem eller servicehem? En etnografisk studie av fritidshem i tre socioekonomiskt skilda områden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In recent decades there has been decreased resources and larger groups of children in the leisure-time centres. Statistics show major differences between leisure-time centres in terms of staff education, group size, staffing levels and the number of children enrolled at each leisure-time centre. The overall aim of the thesis is to study social practices in leisure-time centres providing after-school care. Based on Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration, an ethnographic study was conducted of everyday life at leisure-time centres in three socio-economically diverse areas. Fieldwork was conducted at each leisure-time centre over the course of one semester. The study shows how children and adults talk about their neighbourhoods and schools. It also shows the actors notions about the mission of the leisure-time centres, expressed through the actors' talk and interactions, their day-to-day routines and everyday social encounters. In conclusion, the study shows that the geographic location, resources, staff skills, group sizes and children's socio-economic backgrounds together play major roles in the social practices and activities organised at the leisure-time centres. The social changes and developments of recent decades are noticeable in all leisure-time centres. Housing segregation along with freedom of school choice all had consequences for the leisure-time centres. For children attending the same leisure-time centres, the groups become increasingly homogeneous in line with the children's ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. The results also show that leisure-time centres with large groups of children have reduced opportunities to provide a good learning environment. It becomes evident that the social practices in the leisure-time centres reproduce the contextual conditions, and risk reproducing structural differences in children's lives.
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