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41.
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42.
  • Rundquist, Jonas, 1964- (författare)
  • Outsourcing and knowledge integration in new product development
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis deals with two aspects of knowledge needed for new product development; theaccess to external knowledge through outsourcing of NPD and the integration of knowledgedeveloped when outsourcing activities in the NPD process. As modern products competing onincreasingly international markets call for both complex and specialized knowledge, it isbecoming more important to take an outward perspective of knowledge, searching for externalknowledge sources, in order to be competitive. But it is also important for the firm to take aninward perspective on integration of the knowledge achieved from external sources in order tosecure the knowledge gained.</p><p>Outsourcing of New Product Development (NPD) refers to the outsourcing of activities fordeveloping new products (goods and/or service), where all or the innovative part of the NPDprocess is purchased externally according to a contract from organizational units separatefrom the outsourcing firm. This means that the service to develop a whole or a part of a newproduct is outsourced. This definition implies that (A) the outsourced activity shall be aninnovative (strongly contributing to the newness) part of the NPD process, (B) the outsourcedactivity was previously conducted internally, and (C) the activity shall be purchased andregulated in a contractual agreement between the organizations.</p><p>Knowledge integration refers to the process of acquiring, sharing, and making use ofknowledge by combining it with previous knowledge in order to create new value. Becauseknowledge possessed in collaborating firms is often complementary, it is important tocombine it with previous knowledge in the firm. Therefore knowledge integration is chosenthroughout the thesis as the term for the overall process.</p><p>Based on transaction costs theory, resource based and knowledge based perspectives twomajor issues are investigated. First, the identification of which factors are the most importantfor firms when making the decision to outsource activities in the NPD process. Second, theestablishment of the importance for knowledge integration of external knowledge in the firm,and to find what role level of involvement among staff plays for efficiently achievingknowledge integration.</p><p>The thesis is a compilation thesis (with six appended papers) based on findings from threequantitative studies and a longitudinal case study (presented in two of the appended papers).Using cases from and samples of medium-sized manufacturing firms with in-house NPD itwas found that, while cost has been traditionally considered the most important factor foroutsourcing in general, search for external knowledge is found to have a greater importancewhen intangible processes as NPD is object for outsourcing. It is also found that thematicknowledge is the most important type of knowledge to efficiently integrate to achieve highinnovation performance and that a higher degree of processes and culture supportinginvolvement, increase knowledge integration when outsourcing activities in the NPD process.</p>
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43.
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44.
  • Tharani, Soraya (författare)
  • Immigration, security and the public debate on US language policy a critical discourse analysis of language attitudes in the United States of America
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The narrative of the United States is of a "nation of immigrants" in which the language shift patterns of earlier ethnolinguistic groups have tended towards linguistic assimilation through English. In recent years, however, changes in the demographic landscape and language maintenance by non-English speaking immigrants, particularly Hispanics, have been perceived as threats and have led to calls for an official English language policy.This thesis aims to contribute to the study of language policy making from a societal security perspective as expressed in attitudes regarding language and identity originating in the daily interaction between language groups. The focus is on the role of language and American identity in relation to immigration. The study takes an interdisciplinary approach combining language policy studies, security theory, and critical discourse analysis. The material consists of articles collected from four newspapers, namely USA Today, The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and San Francisco Chronicle between April 2006 and December 2007.Two discourse types are evident from the analysis namely Loyalty and Efficiency. The former is mainly marked by concerns of national identity and contains speech acts of security related to language shift, choice and English for unity. Immigrants are represented as dehumanised, and harmful. Immigration is given as sovereignty-related, racial, and as war. The discourse type of Efficiency is mainly instrumental and contains speech acts of security related to cost, provision of services, health and safety, and social mobility. Immigrants are further represented as a labour resource. These discourse types reflect how the construction of the linguistic 'we' is expected to be maintained. Loyalty is triggered by arguments that the collective identity is threatened and is itself used in reproducing the collective 'we' through hegemonic expressions of monolingualism in the public space and semi-public space. The denigration of immigrants is used as a tool for enhancing societal security through solidarity and as a possible justification for the denial of minority rights. Also, although language acquisition patterns still follow the historical trend of language shift, factors indicating cultural separateness such as the appearance of speech communities or the use of minority languages in the public space and semi-public space have led to manifestations of intolerance. Examples of discrimination and prejudice towards minority groups indicate that the perception of worth of a shared language differs from the actual worth of dominant language acquisition for integration purposes. The study further indicates that the efficient working of the free market by using minority languages to sell services or buy labour is perceived as conflicting with nation-building notions since it may create separately functioning sub-communities with a new cultural capital recognised as legitimate competence. The discourse types mainly represent securitising moves constructing existential threats. The perception of threat and ideas of national belonging are primarily based on a zero-sum notion favouring monolingualism. Further, the identity of the immigrant individual is seen as dynamic and adaptable to assimilationist measures whereas the identity of the state and its members are perceived as static. Also, the study shows that debates concerning language status are linked to extra-linguistic matters. To conclude, policy makers in the US need to consider the relationship between four factors, namely societal security based on collective identity, individual/human security, human rights, and a changing linguistic demography, for proposed language intervention measures to be successful.</p>
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45.
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46.
  • Tinnsten, Mats (författare)
  • Numerical and experimental study of acoustic and structural optimization
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The main objective with this thesis has been to create a procedure (method and program code) that enables automatic optimization of acoustic response from vibrating structures. Automatic means that the proposed method, on its own, should be able to find the desired acoustic quantities for a given problem formulation by altering given variables. The main parts of such an optimization process are: availability to perform structural dynamic analysis, acoustic analysis, and optimization analysis. The structural dynamic analysis comprises eigenmode and response analyses, tools necessary to calculate surface velocities for the actual structure. These calculations are performed using a modified version of the finite element (FE) code FEMP [31]. This FE code is implemented in the acoustic optimization code and used in Papers B, C, D, E, and F. The surface velocities are used as input in the acoustic analyses. The acoustic analyses in this thesis comprises calculation of sound pressure and/or sound intensity amplitudes in specified regions outside vibrating structures surrounded by air. Calculation of the acoustic quantities (pressure and intensity) is performed using a boundary element (BE) code. The BE code is developed and used in Papers C, D, E, and F. The numerical results in Paper C is compared with experimental results A slightly modified version of the optimization routine MMA (method of moving asymptotes) [21] is used for optimization analysis together with the above-mentioned FE and BE codes. The MMA is in Paper A used for a purely structural optimization problem. The acoustic optimization process, comprising FE, BE, and optimization analysis, is performed in Papers D, E, and F. A comparison between numerical and experimental results was also performed in Paper F.</p>
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47.
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48.
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49.
  • Abdikalikova, Zamira (författare)
  • Some new results concerning boundedness and compactness for embeddings between spaces with multiweighted derivatives
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This Doctoral Thesis consists of five chapters, which deal with a new Sobolev type function space called the space with multiweighted derivatives. This space is a generalization of the usual one dimensional Sobolev space. As basis for this space serves some differential operators containing weight functions.Chapter 1 is an introduction, where, in particular, the importance to study function spaces with weights is discussed and motivated. In Chapter 2 we prove some new estimates for each function in a Tchebychev system. In order to be able to study compactness of the embeddings from Chapter 3 such estimates are crucial.In Chapter 3 we rewrite and present some results of L. D. Kudryavtsev, where he investigated one dimensional Sobolev spaces. Moreover, in this chapter we rewrite and discuss some analogous results by B. L. Baidel'dinov for generalized Sobolev spaces. These results are not available in the Western literatures in this way and they are crucial for the proofs of the main results in Chapter 4. In Chapter 4 we prove some embedding theorems for these new generalized Sobolev spaces. The main results of Kudryavtsev and Baidel'dinov about characterization of the behavior of functions at a singularity take place in weak degeneration of the spaces. However, with the help of our new embedding theorems we can extend theseresults to the case of strong degeneration.The main aim of Chapter 5 is to establish boundedness and compactness of the embedding considered in Chapter 4.In Chapter 4 basically only sufficient conditions for boundedness of this embedding were obtained. In Chapter 5 we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for boundedness and compactness of this embedding and the main results are proved in a different way.</p>
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50.
  • Abiri, Olufunminiyi (författare)
  • Non-local models in manufacturing simulations
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Ductile fracture presents challenges with respect to material modelling andnumerical simulations of localization. The strain and damage localization maybe unwanted as it indicates a failure in the process or, as in the case ofmachining and cutting, a wanted phenomenon to be controlled. The latterrequires a higher accuracy regarding the modelling of the underlying coupledplastic and fracturing/damage behaviour of the material, metal in the currentcontext as well as the stability and robustness of the simulation procedure.This aim of this work is to develop, evaluate and implement formulations thatcan efficiently and reliably handle localization problems in machiningsimulations. The focus is on non-local models. The non-local models extendthe standard continuum mechanics theory by using non-local continuumtheory in order to achieve mesh independent results when simulating fractureor shear localization.The non-local damage model is implemented and various formulations areevaluated in a Matlab™ based finite element code. The chosen algorithm wasthen implemented in commercial software. The implementations remedy themesh sensitivity problem and gives convergent solution for metal cuttingsimulations with reasonable cost. The length scale associated with the nonlocalmodels are in the current context considered as a numericalregularization parameter. The model has been applied in machiningsimulations and compared with measurements from industry.Keywords: Finite element simulation; Non-local damage; Plasticity; Machining</p>
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