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  • Charles Murgau, Corinne (författare)
  • Microstructure model for Ti-6Al-4V used in simulation of additive manufacturing
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is devoted to microstructure modelling of Ti-6Al-4V. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of titanium alloys are highly dependent on the temperature history experienced by the material. The developed microstructure model accounts for thermaldriving forces and is applicable for general temperature histories. It has been applied to study wire feed additive manufacturing processes that induce repetitive heating and cooling cycles.The microstructure model adopts internal state variables to represent the microstructure through microstructure constituents' fractions in finite element simulation. This makes it possible to apply the model efficiently for large computational models of general thermomechanical processes. The model is calibrated and validated versus literature data. It is applied to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding -also known as Tungsten Inert Gas welding-wire feed additive manufacturing process.Four quantities are calculated in the model: the volume fraction of phase, consisting of Widmanstätten, grain boundary, and martensite. The phase transformations during cooling are modelled based on diffusional theory described by a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov formulation, except for diffusionless martensite formation where the Koistinen-Marburger equation is used. A parabolic growth rate equation is used for the to transformation upon heating. An added variable, structure size indicator of Widmanstätten, has also been implemented and calibrated. It is written in a simple Arrhenius format.The microstructure model is applied to in finite element simulation of wire feed additive manufacturing. Finally, coupling with a physically based constitutive model enables a comprehensive and predictive model of the properties that evolve during processing.
  • Dagbro, Ola (författare)
  • Studies on Industrial-Scale Thermal Modification of Wood
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Wood as a raw material is useful for many purposes even though some properties are less than optimal, for example, dimensional stability and durability. These characteristics can however be improved by different treatment methods. Environmental awareness has led to an increased demand for environmentally friendly processes like thermal modification that does not add any chemicals to the wood in contrast to, for example, CCA-impregnated wood.This thesis mainly focuses on thermally modified wood from species such as pine, spruce and birch. The thesis present studies of physical attributes such as color, and chemical analysis of water-soluble compounds and degradation products. Treatment intensity is compared between two different industrial processes referred as Thermowood and WTT, which use respectively superheated steam and pressurized steam as heating media.Thermal modification processes darken the color of wood throughout its cross-section. The formation of darker color is related to a degradation processes that takes place during thermal modification. During thermal modification wood is exposed to temperatures between 160 - 220°C, and the temperature causes physical and chemical transformations that change some of the wood properties. Dimensional stability and durability are typically improved, but mechanical strength properties are usually negatively affected by the treatment.The studied wood species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Birch (Betula pendula L.). Treatments using pressurized steam were carried out under temperatures of 160°C, 170°C and 180°C, and treatments using superheated steam at normal air pressure were carried out at temperatures of 190°C and 212°C. Results showed that similar L* (lightness) can be reached at lower temperatures using pressurized steam compared to superheated steam. The residual moisture content after completed thermal modification was approximately 10% higher in wood treated with the pressurized steam process. It was found that despite an approximately 25°C lower treatment temperature, birch modified in pressurized steam was more acidic compared to birch modified in superheated steam. This will likely have further consequences, requiring more research concerning surface treatment and fixation.The thesis also includes the development of an industrial-quality control procedure based on nondestructive color measurements verified in industrial environment. Treatment intensity in industry is today certified by inspection of documented process schedule and measuring the temperature and time of the process. Quality control in this context refers to the measurement of wood color as an indirect measure of treatment intensity. The color in our study was measured using L*C*H color space. The study shows that it is possible for quality control purposes to measure the color of thermally modified wood from the surfaces of planed boards instead of sawdust or board cross sections that have been used in other studies.The thesis has a final section about academia-industry collaboration that describes how trust building was established through a fruitful relationship involving academia and regional wood products industry in northern Sweden. The study presents an example of a successful research and development alliance between university and a group of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This alliance has been a great example on international collaboration involving researchers originating from Finland, China, Bangladesh, Spain, Russia and Sweden. Through an in-depth multi-year study of how the research cooperation developed, the paper describes how the involved companies successfully entered into a new segment of the market.
  • Gama, Fabio, 1980- (författare)
  • Managing the Collaborative Front End of Innovation in Manufacturing Firms : Requirements, Capabilities, and Conditions
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The front end of innovation is critical to innovative efforts in firms yet it remains to be poorly understood. This especially important since innovation efforts in the front end are becoming increasingly open in line with the era of open innovation. Although the literature on the front end of innovation is well developed, prior studies have largely focused on bilateral agreements and have overlooked conditions for collaborations with science-based partners (universities and research institutes). This is especially true for manufacturing firms, for which a continuous stream of new product ideas are a key source of competitiveness. To make things worse, the front end of innovation in this setting is often characterized by incongruent practices by partners, different magnitudes of fuzziness, and high risks in revealing new ideas. Developing new product definitions with different partners is thus a risky endeavor that may seriously compromise competitive advantages if mishandled. Therefore, there is a need for greater knowledge to facilitate the collaborative front end with different types of partners. Accordingly, the purpose of this dissertation is to understand how to manage the collaborative front end in manufacturing firms, with a particular focus on requirements, capabilities, and conditions.To fulfill this research purpose, data on manufacturing firms were collected through four case studies and one survey. In total, this dissertation is based on empirical data from 81 interviews with R&D members across 10 medium-sized and large manufacturing firms, as well as a survey of 146 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms. Respondents were based in Brazil or Sweden. The key theories and literatures covered in this dissertation include coordination modes, control mechanisms, organizational routines, the resource-based view, and appropriability mechanisms.This dissertation makes numerous theoretical contributions to the front-end literature. First, it extends the front-end literature by presenting the concepts of systematic idea generation and fuzziness assessment as a prerequisite for improving front-end performance. Second, this dissertation extends the front-end literature by listing the collaboration conditions that help firms cooperate with science-based partners. By collaborating with science-based partners, firms can access (unpublished) codified and tacit scientific knowledge, enabling them to rapidly build on the latest research findings. The findings suggest particular practices that can be applied to reduce cultural differences and diminish goal divergence among project members. Third, the findings in this dissertation enrich the front-end literature by describing a set of detailed practices to streamline the involvement of different types of partners using diverse protective practices. Fourth, it suggests a theoretical framework that describes how to manage the collaborative front end of innovation. The theoretical framework explains how manufacturing firms can use their organizational capabilities to develop new product ideas efficiently and safely. In particular, the framework discerns the capabilities that are necessary to explore mechanisms, practices, and routines in terms of divergent thinking, external expertise, and multiple opinions. Altogether, these contributions assist firms to better manage collaborative front end. 
  • Gustafsson, Emil (författare)
  • Design and application of experimental methods for steel sheet shearing
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Shearing is the process where sheet metal is mechanically cut between two tools. Various shearing technologies are commonly used in the sheet metal industry, for example, in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material. The constant development of sheet metals toward higher strength and formability leads to increased forces on the shearing equipment and tools.Shearing of new sheet materials imply new suitable shearing parameters. Investigations of the shearing parameters through live tests in the production are expensive and separate experiments are time consuming and requires specialized equipment. Studies involving a large number of parameters and coupled effects are therefore preferably performed by finite element based simulations. Accurate experimental data is still a prerequisite to validate such simulations. There is, however, a shortage of accurate experimental data to validate such simulations.In industrial shearing processes, measured forces are always larger than the actual forces acting on the sheet, due to friction losses. Shearing also generates a force that attempts to separate the two tools with changed shearing conditions through increased clearance between the tools as result. Tool clearance is also the most common shearing parameter to adjust, depending on material grade and sheet thickness, to moderate the required force and to control the final sheared edge geometry.In this work, an experimental procedure that provides a stable tool clearance together with accurate measurements of tool forces and tool displacements, was designed, built and evaluated. Important shearing parameters and demands on the experimental set-up were identified in a sensitivity analysis performed with finite element simulations under the assumption of plane strain. With respect to large tool clearance stability and accurate force measurements, a symmetric experiment with two simultaneous shears and internal balancing of forces attempting to separate the tools was constructed.Steel sheets of different strength levels were sheared using the above mentioned experimental set-up, with various tool clearances, sheet clamping and rake angles. Results showed that tool penetration before fracture decreased with increased material strength. When one side of the sheet was left unclamped and free to move, the required shearing force decreased but instead the force attempting to separate the two tools increased. Further, the maximum shearing force decreased and the rollover increased with increased tool clearance.Digital image correlation was applied to measure strains on the sheet surface. The obtained strain fields, together with a material model, were used to compute the stress state in the sheet. A comparison, up to crack initiation, of these experimental results with corresponding results from finite element simulations in three dimensions and at a plane strain approximation showed that effective strains on the surface are representative also for the bulk material.A simple model was successfully applied to calculate the tool forces in shearing with angled tools from forces measured with parallel tools. These results suggest that, with respect to tool forces, a plane strain approximation is valid also at angled tools, at least for small rake angles.In general terms, this study provide a stable symmetric experimental set-up with internal balancing of lateral forces, for accurate measurements of tool forces, tool displacements, and sheet deformations, to study the effects of important shearing parameters. The results give further insight to the strain and stress conditions at crack initiation during shearing, and can also be used to validate models of the shearing process.
  • Khodadad, Davood (författare)
  • Multiplexed Digital Holography incorporating Speckle Correlation
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In manufacturing industry there is a high demand for on line quality control to minimize therisk of incorrectly produced objects. Conventional contact measurement methods are usuallyslow and invasive, meaning that they cannot be used for soft materials and for complexshapes without influencing the controlled parts. In contrast, interferometry and digitalholography in combination with computers become faster, more reliable and highly accurateas an alternative non-contact technique for industrial shape evaluation. For example in digitalholography, access to the complex wave field and the possibility to numerically reconstructholograms in different planes introduce a new degree of flexibility to optical metrology. Withdigital holography high resolution and precise three dimensional (3D) images of themanufactured parts can be generated. This technique can also be used to capture data in asingle exposure, which is important when doing measurements in a disturbed environment.The aim of this thesis is devoted to the theoretical and experimental development of shapeand deformation measurements. To perform online process control of free-formmanufactured objects, the measured shape is compared with the CAD-model to obtaindeviations. To do this, a new technique to measure surface gradients and shape based onsingle-shot multiplexed dual-wavelength digital holography and image correlation of speckledisplacements is demonstrated. Based on an analytical relation between phase gradients andspeckle displacements it is shown that an object is retrieved uniquely to shape, position anddeformation without the unwrapping problems that usually appear in dual-wavelengthholography. The method is first demonstrated using continues-wave laser light from twotemperature controlled laser diodes operating at 640 nm. Then a specially designed dual corediode pumped fiber laser that produces pulsed light with wavelengths close to 1030 nm isused. In addition, a Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 532 nm is used for 3D deformationmeasurements.One significant problem when using the dual-wavelength single-shot approach is that phaseambiguities are built in to the system that needs to be corrected. An automatic calibrationscheme is therefore required. The intrinsic flexibility of digital holography gives a possibilityto compensate these aberrations and to remove errors, fully numerically without mechanicalmovements. In this thesis I present a calibration method which allows multiplexed singleshotonline shape evaluation in a disturbed environment. It is shown that phase maps andspeckle displacements can be recovered free of chromatic aberrations. This is the first time that a multiplexed single-shot dual-wavelength calibration is reported by defining a criteria tomake an automatic procedure.Further, Digital Speckle Photography (DSP) is used for the full field measurement of 3Ddeformations. In order to do 3D deformation measurement, usually multi-cameras andintricate set-up are required. In this thesis I demonstrate the use of only one single camera torecord four sets of speckle patterns recorded by illuminating the object from four differentdirections. In this manner, meanwhile 3D speckle displacement is calculated and used for themeasurement of the 3D deformations, wrapping problems are also avoided. Further, the samescale of speckle images of the surface for all four images is guaranteed. Furthermore, a needfor calibration of the 3D deformation measurement that occurs in the multi-camera methods,is removed.By the results of the presented work, it is experimentally verified that the multiplexed singleshotdual wavelength digital holography and numerically generated speckle images can beused together with digital speckle correlation to retrieve and evaluate the object shape. Usingmultidirectional illumination, the 3D deformation measurements can also be obtained. Theproposed method is robust to large phase gradients and large movements within the intensitypatterns. The advantage of the approach is that, using speckle displacements, shape anddeformation measurements can be performed even though the synthetic wavelength is out ofthe dynamic range of the object deformation and/or height variation.
  • Abiri, Olufunminiyi (författare)
  • Non-local models in manufacturing simulations
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ductile fracture presents challenges with respect to material modelling andnumerical simulations of localization. The strain and damage localization maybe unwanted as it indicates a failure in the process or, as in the case ofmachining and cutting, a wanted phenomenon to be controlled. The latterrequires a higher accuracy regarding the modelling of the underlying coupledplastic and fracturing/damage behaviour of the material, metal in the currentcontext as well as the stability and robustness of the simulation procedure.This aim of this work is to develop, evaluate and implement formulations thatcan efficiently and reliably handle localization problems in machiningsimulations. The focus is on non-local models. The non-local models extendthe standard continuum mechanics theory by using non-local continuumtheory in order to achieve mesh independent results when simulating fractureor shear localization.The non-local damage model is implemented and various formulations areevaluated in a Matlab™ based finite element code. The chosen algorithm wasthen implemented in commercial software. The implementations remedy themesh sensitivity problem and gives convergent solution for metal cuttingsimulations with reasonable cost. The length scale associated with the nonlocalmodels are in the current context considered as a numericalregularization parameter. The model has been applied in machiningsimulations and compared with measurements from industry.Keywords: Finite element simulation; Non-local damage; Plasticity; Machining
  • Abylayeva, Akbota (författare)
  • Inequalities for some classes of Hardy type operators and compactness in weighted Lebesgue spaces
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This PhD thesis is devoted to investigate weighted differential Hardy inequalities and Hardy-type inequalities with the kernel when the kernel has an integrable singularity, and also the additivity of the estimate of a Hardy type operator with a kernel.The thesis consists of seven papers (Papers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and an introduction where a review on the subject of the thesis is given. In Paper 1 weighted differential Hardy type inequalities are investigated on the set of compactly supported smooth functions, where necessary and sufficient conditions on the weight functions are established for which this inequality and two-sided estimates for the best constant hold. In Papers 2, 3, 4 a more general class of -order fractional integrationoperators are considered including the well-known classical Weyl, Riemann-Liouville, Erdelyi-Kober and Hadamard operators. Here 0 <  < 1. In Papers 2 and 3 the boundedness and compactness of two classes of such operators are investigated namely of Weyl and Riemann-Liouville type, respectively, in weighted Lebesgue spaces for 1 < p ≤ q < 1 and 0 < q < p < ∞. As applications some new results for the fractional integration operators of Weyl, Riemann-Liouville, Erdelyi-Kober and Hadamard are given and discussed.In Paper 4 the Riemann-Liouville type operator with variable upper limit is considered. The main results are proved by using a localization method equipped with the upper limit function and the kernel of the operator. In Papers 5 and 6 the Hardy operator with kernel is considered, where the kernel has a logarithmic singularity. The criteria of the boundedness and compactness of the operator in weighted Lebesgue spaces are given for 1 < p ≤ q < ∞ and 0 < q < p < ∞, respectively. In Paper 7 we investigated the weighted additive estimates for integral operators K+ and K¯ defined byK+ ƒ(x) := ∫ k(x,s) ƒ(s)ds,  K¯ ƒ(x) := ∫ k(x,s)ƒ(s)ds.It is assumed that the kernel k of the operators K+and K- belongs to the general Oinarov class. We derived the criteria for the validity of these addittive estimates when 1 ≤ p≤ q < ∞
  • Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson, 1981- (författare)
  • Crystallization of NBA-ZSM-5 from kaolin
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ZSM-5 is an aluminosilicate zeolite with high Si/Al ratio with suitable properties for catalysis, ion exchange, adsorption and membrane applications. The main goal of this thesis was to study the growth of ZSM-5 zeolite crystals from inexpensive natural sources of silica and alumina, as well as n-butylamine (NBA) as a low-cost structure directing agent.The first objective of this work was to develop pathways to synthesize ZSM-5 crystals from kaolin clay or diatomaceous earth, two inexpensive natural sources of silica and alumina (Paper I). In the case of kaolin, a heat treatment was used in order to form amorphous metakaolinite. Subsequently, dealumination of the raw materials by acid leaching made it possible to reach appropriate Si/Al ratios and to reduce the amount of impurities. Finally, leached metakaolinite or diatomaceous earth was reacted with sodium hydroxide and NBA. After synthesis optimization, both sources of aluminosilicates were found to behave differently during the course of synthesis and to lead to slightly different reaction products. The final products exhibited Si/Al ratios in the range 10-20. The use of leached diatomaceous earth allowed to reach higher yield of ZSM-5 crystals within comparable synthesis times. However, low amounts of mordenite were inevitably formed as a by-product, which was related to the high calcium content of diatomaceous earth. Therefore, the rest of the thesis focused on the kaolin system.In order to study the growth mechanism of ZSM-5 from leached metakaolinite, a proper methodology to gain local compositional data by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on aluminosilicates was developed (Paper II). Zeolite A was used as a model system that could be ion-exchanged with various elements. In order to evaluate the reliability of the measurements, inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and EDS were compared. The EDS method developed in this work resulted in molar ratios very close to theoretical values and was therefore found more reliable than ICP-SFMS. Therefore, the method developed for zeolite A was applied in the rest of the thesis work to study the formation and growth of ZSM-5 crystals.The second part of this work focused on the kaolin system in order to understand the nucleation and growth processes of the ZSM-5 crystals. This system was heterogeneous, due to the formation of a gel upon heating of the synthesis mixture. First, the internal structure of the gel was investigated (Paper III). Second, a kinetic study was performed and compared with microstructural observations (Paper IV). Finally, the mechanisms leading to Al-zoning and dendritical growth of the zeolite crystals were investigated (Paper V). The characterization of the intermediate phases during the different stages of the hydrothermal synthesis were analyzed by different analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), extreme high resolution-scanning electron microscopy (XHR-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen gas adsorption.These investigations led to several important conclusions: 1) The walls of the gel were shown for the first time to be inhomogeneous and to possess a biphasic internal structure consisting of a mesoporous skeleton of aluminosilicate nanoparticles embedded in a silicate-rich soluble matrix of soft matter. 2) The kinetic study and microstructural evidences indicated that the early crystals were fully embedded inside the gel phase and that crystal growth was retarded, as the formation of the gel occurred simultaneously with the early growth of the crystals. Hence, nucleation and growth appeared to be solution mediated.  3) Finally, the Al zoning of the crystals was related to the biphasic internal structure of the gel, since the silicate-rich matrix was preferentially consumed first. 4) The dendrites present at the surface of the crystals during most of the growth process were shown to be caused by the presence of a web of nanoparticles, most likely originating from the mesoporous skeleton inside the gel.In the future, these findings are expected to lead to optimized synthesis pathways of catalysts with homogeneous properties and to contribute to the development of poor regions in Bolivia.
  • Akhmetkaliyeva, Raya (författare)
  • Maximal regularity of the solutions for some degenerate differential equations and their applications
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This PhD thesis deals with the study of existence and uniqueness together with coercive estimates for solutions of certain differential equations.The thesis consists of six papers (papers A, B, C, D, E and F), two appendices and an introduction, which put these papers and appendices into a more general frame and which also serves as an overview of this interesting field of mathematics.In the text below the functionsr = r(x), q = q(x), m = m(x) etc. are functions on (−∞,+∞), which are different but well defined in each paper. Paper A deals with the study of separation and approximation properties for the differential operator                                                                                                                                           in the Hilbert space (here is the complex conjugate of ). A coercive estimate for the solution of the second order differential equation is obtained and its applications to spectral problems for the corresponding differential operator  is demonstrated. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of the solutions of a class of nonlinear second order differential equations on the real axis are obtained.In paper B necessary and sufficient conditions for the compactness of the resolvent of the second order degenerate differential operator  in is obtained. We also discuss the two-sided estimates for the radius of fredholmness of this operator.In paper C we consider the minimal closed differential operator                                       in , where are continuously differentiable functions, and is a continuous function. In this paper we show that the operator is continuously invertible when these coefficients satisfy some suitable conditions and obtain the following estimate for :                                            ,where is the domain of .In papers D, E, and F various differential equations of the third order of the form       are studied in the space .In paper D we investigate the case when and .Moreover, in paper E the equation (0.1) is studied when . Finally, in paper F the equation (0.1) is investigated under certain additional conditions on .For these equations we establish sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the solution, and also prove an estimate of the form      for the solution of equation (0.1).                                                                             
  • Al-Douri, Yamur (författare)
  • Two-Level Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for Risk-Based Life Cycle Cost Analysis
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the fields in science and engineering and encompasses a wide variety of subfields, ranging from general areas (learning and perception) to specific topics, such as mathematical theorems. AI and, specifically, multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) for risk-based life cycle cost (LCC) analysis should be performed to estimate the optimal replacement time of tunnel fan systems, with a view towards reducing the ownership cost and the risk cost and increasing company profitability from an economic point of view. MOGA can create systems that are capable of solving problems that AI and LCC analyses cannot accomplish alone.The purpose of this thesis is to develop a two-level MOGA method for optimizing the replacement time of reparable system. MOGA should be useful for machinery in general and specifically for reparable system. This objective will be achieved by developing a system that includes a smart combination of techniques by integrating MOGA to yield the optimized replacement time. Another measure to achieve this purpose is implementing MOGA in clustering and imputing missing data to obtain cost data, which could help to provide proper data to forecast cost data for optimization and to identify the optimal replacement time.In the first stage, a two-level MOGA is proposed to optimize clustering to reduce and impute missing cost data. Level one uses a MOGA based on fuzzy c-means to cluster cost data objects based on three main indices. The first is cluster centre outliers; the second is the compactness and separation ( ) of the data points and cluster centres; the third is the intensity of data points belonging to the derived clusters. Level two uses MOGA to impute the missing cost data by using a valid data period from that are reduced data in size. In the second stage, a two-level MOGA is proposed to optimize time series forecasting. Level one implements MOGA based on either an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model or a dynamic regression (DR) model. Level two utilizes a MOGA based on different forecasting error rates to identify proper forecasting. These models are applied to simulated data for evaluation since there is no control of the influenced parameters in all of the real cost data. In the final stage, a two-level MOGA is employed to optimize risk-based LCC analysis to find the optimal replacement time for reparable system. Level one uses a MOGA based on a risk model to provide a variation of risk percentages, while level two uses a MOGA based on an LCC model to estimate the optimal reparable system replacement time.The results of the first stage show the best cluster centre optimization for data clustering with low  and high intensity. Three cluster centres were selected because these centres have a geometry that is suitable for the highest data reduction of 27%. The best optimized interval is used for imputing missing data. The results of the second stage show the drawbacks of time series forecasting using a MOGA based on the DR model. The MOGA based on the ARIMA model yields better forecasting results. The results of the final stage show the drawbacks of the MOGA based on a risk-based LCC model regarding its estimation. However, the risk-based LCC model offers the possibility of optimizing the replacement schedule.However, MOGA is highly promising for allowing optimization compared with other methods that were investigated in the present thesis.
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