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  • Ye, Pengcheng (författare)
  • Zeolite Membrane Separation at Low Temperature
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The energy consumption of separation processes accounts for a large part of the total energy consumption in chemical industry. Membrane separation processes require much less energy than the currently used thermally driven separation processes and could therefore reduce energy consumption in industry considerably. Today, most commercially available membranes are organic polymeric membranes. Inorganic zeolite membranes have several superiorities over polymeric membranes, e.g., higher flux and selectivity, higher chemical and thermal stability, and thus have great potential for a variety of gas and liquid separations. Whereas there have been extensive studies on zeolite membrane separation at high temperature during the past decades, scientific reports on the low temperature applications of zeolite membranes is extremely scarce and there are no reports at cryogenic temperature. This work is pioneering research on investigation of the performance of zeolite membranes for separation of various gas mixtures at unprecedentedly low temperature, down to cryogenic temperature. In the present work, zeolite membranes were, for the first time, evaluated for gas separation at cryogenic temperature. Air separation by ultra-thin MFI membranes was carried out at a feed pressure ranging from 100 mbar to 5 bar over the temperature range of 62–110 K. The membranes were found to be oxygen selective at all the conditions investigated. The observed results were well above the upper bound in the 2008 Robeson selectivity-permeability plot when the feed pressure was less than or equal to 1 bar. The O2/N2 separation factor reached 5.0 at 67 K and 100 mbar, with a high O2 permeance of 8.6 × 10-7 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. The performance of our membranes (in terms of selectivity) was comparable to that recently reported for promising polymeric membranes, but 100 times higher in terms of permeance and flux. The membrane selectivity was found to increase with decreasing temperature and feed pressure. The present work has therefore indicated the optimum conditions for air separation using MFI membranes, namely low feed pressures and cryogenic temperatures. A mathematical model showed that the selectivity to O2 emanated from O2/N2 adsorption selectivity. N2/He separation is essential for helium recovery from natural gas and helium reclamation for airships and submarines. Zeolite membranes were evaluated for this separation over the temperature range of 85–260 K, possessing high N2-selectivity at all the conditions investigated. When the feed pressure was 5 bar and the permeate pressure was 0.5 bar, a highest N2/He separation factor of 62 was observed at 124 K. The N2 permeance was rather high, up to 39 ×10−7 mol m−2 s−1 Pa−1. The separation was attributed to adsorption selectivity of the membranes to N2, effectively suppressing the transport of He in the zeolite pores and this effect was more significant at cryogenic temperature. A mathematical model showed that the largest difference of adsorbed loading over the film at ca. 120 K was probably the main reason for the observed maximum selectivity at this temperature. The model also indicated that the selectivity could even be increased by 2–3 times if the membrane was totally defect-free. This work demonstrates that a zeolite membrane process could be rather competitive for N2/He separation. Synthesis gas generated from biomass is a valuable, renewable resource that can be used for production of clean energy and various chemicals. It is mainly a mixture of CO, CO2, and H2. CO2 is an undesired component in the syngas and should, therefore, be removed. In this work, CO2 separation from H2 and CO using zeolite membranes was studied for at low temperatures, down to 235 K and at a feed pressure of 9 bar. The membrane performance in terms of both selectivity and flux was superior to that reported for the state-of-the-art polymeric and inorganic membranes. The highest separation factor was 202 for CO2/H2 separation at 235 K and 21 for CO2/CO separation at 258 K, significantly higher than that at room temperature. The observed CO2 flux was very high, i.e., 300-420 kg m-2 h-1, in the entire temperature range of 235–310 K. Initial cost estimation revealed that high flux zeolite membranes were economically competitive with the present commercial polymeric membranes. Moreover, the process relying on our zeolite membranes was shown to be appreciably more space-efficient. Efficient light olefins/N2 separation technologies are of great interest to recover monomers from N2 purge gas in polymer plants. C3H6/N2 and C2H4/ N2 separation were investigated using zeolite membranes in a temperature range of 258–356 K. The membranes were rather selective towards the hydrocarbons. For C3H6/N2 separation, a maximum separation factor of 43 was observed at room temperature with a C3H6 permeance of 22×10-7 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. For C2H4/N2 separation, the maximum separation factor was 6 at 277 K with a C2H4 permeance of 57×10-7 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. The findings reveal that zeolite membranes are promising candidates for light olefins/N2 separation in petrochemical processes. The adsorption properties dominate separation performance for systems studied in the present work. The high selectivity emanates from competitive adsorption, e.g., the strongly adsorbing components hinder the permeances of the weakly adsorbing ones and the effect was stronger at low temperature. In addition, gas permeances through zeolite membranes tend to decrease at low temperature most likely due to decreasing diffusivity, especially at cryogenic temperature. However, the permeances of our membranes even at low temperature were still one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported for inorganic and polymeric membranes. Thus, the high-flux membranes have great superiority in this case. The fairly high permeance even at low temperatures was ascribed to the ultra-thin (< 1µm) film and highly permeable support used. We provide here a promising candidate, ultra-thin zeolite membranes, with high permeance and excellent selectivity for gas separation application at low temperature.
  • Zhang, Liangwei (författare)
  • Big Data Analytics for Fault Detection and its Application in Maintenance
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Big Data analytics has attracted intense interest recently for its attempt to extract information, knowledge and wisdom from Big Data. In industry, with the development of sensor technology and Information & Communication Technologies (ICT), reams of high-dimensional, streaming, and nonlinear data are being collected and curated to support decision-making. The detection of faults in these data is an important application in eMaintenance solutions, as it can facilitate maintenance decision-making. Early discovery of system faults may ensure the reliability and safety of industrial systems and reduce the risk of unplanned breakdowns.Complexities in the data, including high dimensionality, fast-flowing data streams, and high nonlinearity, impose stringent challenges on fault detection applications. From the data modelling perspective, high dimensionality may cause the notorious “curse of dimensionality” and lead to deterioration in the accuracy of fault detection algorithms. Fast-flowing data streams require algorithms to give real-time or near real-time responses upon the arrival of new samples. High nonlinearity requires fault detection approaches to have sufficiently expressive power and to avoid overfitting or underfitting problems.Most existing fault detection approaches work in relatively low-dimensional spaces. Theoretical studies on high-dimensional fault detection mainly focus on detecting anomalies on subspace projections. However, these models are either arbitrary in selecting subspaces or computationally intensive. To meet the requirements of fast-flowing data streams, several strategies have been proposed to adapt existing models to an online mode to make them applicable in stream data mining. But few studies have simultaneously tackled the challenges associated with high dimensionality and data streams. Existing nonlinear fault detection approaches cannot provide satisfactory performance in terms of smoothness, effectiveness, robustness and interpretability. New approaches are needed to address this issue.This research develops an Angle-based Subspace Anomaly Detection (ABSAD) approach to fault detection in high-dimensional data. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated in analytical studies and numerical illustrations. Based on the sliding window strategy, the approach is extended to an online mode to detect faults in high-dimensional data streams. Experiments on synthetic datasets show the online extension can adapt to the time-varying behaviour of the monitored system and, hence, is applicable to dynamic fault detection. To deal with highly nonlinear data, the research proposes an Adaptive Kernel Density-based (Adaptive-KD) anomaly detection approach. Numerical illustrations show the approach’s superiority in terms of smoothness, effectiveness and robustness.
  • Zhang, Yingying (författare)
  • Thermodynamic Analysis and Screening ILs/DESs-based Absorbents for CO2 Separation
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • CO2 separation plays an important role in both biofuel production, and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) implementation to deal with global warming. The available CO2 separation technologies are either energy-intensive or require large-scale operations, and it is crucial to develop novel CO2 separation technology in order to optimize the energy uses and the amounts of CO2-absorbents/adsorbents.Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as potential liquid absorbents for CO2 separation with remarkable properties. A lot of ILs have been synthesized for this purpose. The CO2 absorption capacity/selectivity and the energy use have been considered in screening ILs, while the amounts of ILs needed have seldom been considered in the screening process. Meanwhile, the high-cost, toxicity and poor biodegradability of the conventional ILs limit their applications in large-scale. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as a new type of ILs, and in particular, those based on choline salts (i.e. choline-based DESs) show additional advantages in cost, environmental impact and synthesis. Choline-based DESs have been synthesized and the research work related to CO2 separation with this series of DESs and their aqueous solutions has been carried out. However, it is still unclear which absorbent can achieve a better performance for CO2 separation.The choice of absorbents for CO2 separation depends on gas streams, and the performances of absorbents for CO2 separation relate to the energy uses and the amounts of absorbents needed. In this thesis work, four gas streams (i.e. flue gas and lime kiln gas from the combustion of fossil-fuels, biogas from the anaerobic digestion of biomass as well as bio-syngas from the gasification of biomass) with different temperature, pressure, CO2 concentration and gaseous components were considered, and CO2 separation from four gas streams was analyzed thermodynamically based on Gibbs free energy change. The analysis shows that biogas is the CO2 stream with the lowest theoretical energy penalty. Therefore, biogas was chosen as a specific CO2 stream for further evaluating the performances of CO2 absorbents.In evaluation, the conventional ILs were first analyzed and screened for CO2 separation from biogas with three options (i.e. option 1: the CO2 dissolution enthalpy and CO2 working capacity, option 2: the energy use, and option 3: the energy use and the amount of IL needed). The investigation shows that the screen of ILs is strongly related to the operational condition and the screening criteria. In the option of “the energy use and the amount of IL needed”, the operational condition was optimized based on the minimum Gibbs free energy change, and the energy use and the amount of IL needed were considered in screening. While in other screening options, the operational conditions were presumed and the amounts of ILs needed were not considered. Therefore, the option of “the energy use and the amount of IL needed” is more reasonable compared to the other two options. The performances of these screened conventional ILs were further compared with those of the commercial CO2 absorbents. It shows that the conventional ILs are promising CO2 absorbents due to lower energy uses or lower amounts of ILs needed combined with the advantage of non-volatility.The research work on choline-based DESs and their aqueous solutions for CO2 separation was surveyed and reviewed. Generally, the properties of choline-based DESs are similar to those of conventional ILs. Considering the additional advantages of low-cost, non-toxicity and biodegradability, choline-based DESs are more promising for CO2 separation. However, due to the limited available research work, further studies need to be carried out from experimental measurements to model developments. The performances of choline-based-DESs for CO2 separation from biogas were analyzed. Based on the option of “the energy use and the amount of absorbent needed”, the choline-based-DESs were screened and then compared with the conventional ILs and the commercial CO2 absorbents. The comparison results show that the choline-based-DESs are more promising for CO2 separation from biogas due to the non-volatility, lower energy uses or lower amounts of absorbents needed. In addition, CO2 separation from other CO2 streams was further investigated. It shows that the physical absorbents are more suitable for the CO2 streams with high CO2 concentration (i.e. biogas, lime kiln gas and bio-syngas), while the chemical CO2 absorbents are more suitable for that with low CO2 concentration and high temperature (i.e. flue gas). Considering the high amounts of physical absorbents, further study needs to be carried out with techno-economic analysis.
  • Zhuang, Linqi (författare)
  • Effects of Non-uniform Fiber Distribution on Fiber/matrix Interface Crack Propagation in Polymeric Composites
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Fiber/matrix interface cracking plays an important role in determining the final failureof unidirectional (UD) composites. When subjected to longitudinally tensile loading,fiber/matrix interface debonds originate from fiber breaks or initial defects propagatealong loading direction. Depending on the quality of fiber/matrix interface, debondscould keep growing longitudinally which leads to the degradation of compositestiffness or kink out of interface and connect with neighboring debonds or fiberbreaks that forms a so called critical fracture plane which leads to the final failure ofUD composite. For UD composite subjected to transversely tensile loading, theinitiation, growth and coalesce of arc-shape fiber/matrix interface debonds result inthe formation of macro-size transverse cracks, the propagation and multiplication ofthese transverse cracks, although would not directly lead to the final failure ofcomposite, could cause significant stiffness degradation of composite structures.In the presence thesis, the growth of a fiber/matrix interface debond of a UDcomposite with hexagonal fiber packing under longitudinal and transverse tensileloading was investigated numerically, with the special focus on the influence ofneighboring fibers. In the current study, energy release rate (ERR) is considered as thedriving force for the debond growth and was calculated based on J Integral andVirtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) using finite element software ANSSY.Papers A – C in the present thesis deal with the influence of neighboring fibers on theERR of a debond emanating from a fiber break under longitudinal loading condition.In longitudinal loading case, debond growth is mode II dominated. In paper A, anaxisymmetric model consisting 5 concentric cylinders that represent broken fiber withdebond, surrounding matrix, neighboring fibers, surrounding matrix and effectivecomposite was generated. It’s found that there are two stages of debond growth, thefirst stage is when debond length is short, the ERR decreases with increasing debondlength, and the presence of neighboring fibers significantly increase the ERR ofdebond. For relatively long debond, the debond growth is steady when ERR is almostconstant regardless of debond length. In steady state of debond growth, the presenceof neighboring fibers have little effect on the ERR. In papers B and C, a 3-D modelwas generated with broken fiber and its 6 nearest fibers in a hexagonal packed UDcomposite were modelled explicitly, surrounded by the homogenized composite.Based on the obtained results, it’s shown that ERR is varying along debond front, andhas its maximum at the circumferential location where the distance between two fibercenter is the smallest. This indicates that the debond front is not a circle. For steadystate debond, the presence of neighboring fibers have little effect on averaged ERR(averages of ERR along debond front). For short debond, the presences ofneighboring fibers increases the averaged ERR, and that increase is more significantwhen inter-fiber distance is the smallest. Paper D investigates the growth of afiber/matrix debond along fiber circumference under transverse loading. It’s foundthat debond growth in this case is mixed-mode, and both mode I and mode II ERRcomponents increase with increasing debond angle and then decreases. Debondgrowth is mode I dominated for small debond angle and then switch to mode IIdominated. The presence of neighboring fibers have an enhancement effect on debondgrowth up to certain small debond angle and then changes to a protective effect. InPaper E, the interaction between two arc-size debond under transverse loading isinvestigated. It’s found that when two debonds are close to each other, the interactionbetween two debond becomes much stronger, and that interaction leads to the increaseof ERR of each debond significantly, which facilitates further growth for bothdebond.
  • Zrida, Hana (författare)
  • Composites with bundle mesostructure: Elastic properties and Damage
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Many types of composite materials are today used in various types of load carrying structures, due to their excellent strength and stiffness to weight ratio. Simplicity, reliability and low cost of the material processing are important factors affecting the final selection.With the textile reinforced composites, the cost-efficiency is reached by using dry preforms which are impregnated by resin infusion, resin transfer molding etc.; this have made a break-through and have been widely used. Textile composites with bundle meso-structure have been studied in this thesis for elastic properties and damage investigations. The first part of this thesis deals with elastic properties modeling for Non-crimp fabric (NCF) based composites for investigating the effect of meso-structure defects on mechanical properties degradation. The objective of the work is to formulate a model for the NCF composite mesostructure in an attempt to investigate the effect of the waviness on stiffness reduction. Moreover, the stiffness calculation methods for the complex geometry are explained and justified and finally, the different geometrical parameters changes are taken into consideration and included in the calculation.The damage initiation and development is presented is the second part, where woven fabric composites designated for high temperature application were investigated under severe thermal conditions to study their thermal stability and their resistance to thermal damage. The mechanical performance of the same composites was studied. The effect of aging was also investigated. 3D models were realized with Finite elements in order to explain the edge effect on the evolution of the cracks observed during the tensile tests. In addition, the differences and similarities in cracking in different layers were analysed using probabilistic approaches (a simple one as well as Monte Carlo simulations with Hashin’s and also shear lag model) and fracture mechanics arguments.
  • Åkerfeldt, Pia (författare)
  • Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V: Relationship between Microstructure, Defects and Mechanical Properties
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Additive manufacturing (AM) is a relatively new technology that is labelled to be innovative, disruptive, near-net shaping, enabling manufacturing of complex and customised products, for limitless number of applications, directly from the CAD model into real physical parts. For titanium alloys in aerospace applications, AM moreover stands for a reduced material cost, but also for large challenges when considering consistency and qualification of material properties and components in serial production. In the AM process the feedstock material is melted by a heat source that moves according to a building sequence defined by the CAD model. Layer-by-layer the material solidifies into the wanted shape and accordingly the microstructure forms,which determines the average mechanical properties of the manufactured component. However, even if the AM process seems to be very straight forward, the prediction of mechanical and metallurgical properties is complex, partly because of its building in layer nature which generates a complex thermal history dictating the mechanical properties, and partly because of the number of parameters involved during the AM process itself. The objective of the present work was to increase the fundamental understanding of the relationship between microstructure, defects and mechanicalproperties of AM:ed Ti-6Al-4V. Three AM techniques were investigated, namely laser metal-wire deposition (LMwD), electron beam melting (EBM), and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) wire feed AM, with the main focus on LMwD. The different techniques were evaluated with regard to microstructure and tensile and fatigue properties. In addition, the EBM Ti-6Al-4V was tested in a hydrogen atmosphere to simulate the working environment for a certain engine application. One of the core findings in the present work was that AM:ed Ti-6Al-4V exhibited a columnar microstructure with elongated prior beta grains growing through several layers following the temperature gradient direction in the built material. To cover the different characteristics of the columnar microstructure, the mechanical properties were evaluated in two orientations of the built Ti-6Al-4V. The mechanical properties, both static and dynamic, were found to be anisotropic, which was further evaluated indetail with respect to the microstructure evolution and defects generated by the AM process. Among the results, when different process conditions were tested, it was concluded that the thickness of the grain boundary alpha along the prior beta grain boundary did not influence the level of anisotropy. However, the prior beta grain boundary was observed to be the weakest microconstituent when the load was applied perpendicular to its prevalence in both tensile and LCF testing. In order to get a better understanding of how the columnar microstructure influences the fatigue properties, the fatigue crack propagation characteristics were investigated with respect to the columnar prior beta grains and crystal orientation. An extensive fractographic study was carried out on all tested specimens. Lack of fusion (LoF) defects were concluded to be the individually most detrimental type of defect to the material properties. The influence of the LoF defects was further concluded to be very dependent on its prevalence in relation to the loading direction; the largest impact on the fatigue life was observed when the LoF defect wasperpendicular to the loading direction. Finally, a part of the aim of the present work was to support the development of a microstructure model that will be implemented in a thermo-mechanical model when simulating AM of Ti-6Al-4V. In order to validate the material model developed, the alpha lath thickness and the fraction of grain boundary alpha were quantified atspecific locations in single and multiple bead walls of GTAW wire feed AM:ed Ti-6Al-4V and compared with the results of the simulated AM process of Ti-6Al-4V.
  • Östlund, Rickard (författare)
  • Microstructure based modelling of ductile fracture in quench-hardenable boron steel
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Reduction of fuel consumption and emissions by vehicle weight minimization constitute a major driving force for the development of new materials and manufacturing processes in the automotive industry. Simultaneously formed and quenched boron steel components have higher strength to weight ratio than conventional mild steel components. Additionally, hot formed components can be tailored to have regions with lower strength and higher ductility, improving their crash performance. This is often realized via dierential in-die cooling rates, thus yielding a variable microstructure compositiongiving rise to distributed mechanical properties. Predicting the performance envelopes of these types of components poses some challenges in terms of constitutive modelling, due to the dierential material composition and mechanical properties. Moreover, fractureinitiation is often a limiting design factor. This thesis aims to contribute to the constitutive and ductile fracture modelling of quench-hardenable boron steels, with reference to microstructure composition and hence process history. Modelling techniques which in an approximate manner can estimate the eective material properties based on the properties of the constituents in combination with ductile fracture models are presented.Computational issues concerning numerical nite element modelling of material instabilities are also addressed, essentially via two dierent methods. Introducing a discretization dependent parameter in the constitutive description, or by kinematic enhancements with respect to the localization problem. Both aim to reduce mesh sensitivity and provide improved predictions of post-instability response with industrially relevant mesh sizes.Additionally, an experimental investigation on the ow and fracture properties of boron steel, with a comprehensive range of dierent microstructure compositions, is presented. A full-eld measurement technique enabled the direct evaluation of mechanical properties and fracture relevant data from tensile tests. These results have supported the establishment of models and enabled their calibration, and they provide further insight to the inuence of microstructure and processing conditions on the ductile fracture properties. Comparisons between simulations and experiments indicate that useful predictions of the overall hardening behaviour and fracture elongations can be obtained by the suggested microstructure based modelling approach.
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