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  • Elsir, T., et al. (författare)
  • PROX1 is a predictor of survival for gliomas WHO grade II
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 104:11, s. 1747-1754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:The clinical course of World Health Organisation grade II gliomas remains variable and their time point of transformation into a more malignant phenotype is unpredictable. Identification of biological markers that can predict prognosis in individual patients is of great clinical value. PROX1 is a transcription factor that has a critical role in the development of various organs. PROX1 has been ascribed both oncogenic and tumour suppressive functions in human cancers. We have recently shown that PROX1 may act as a diagnostic marker for high-grade gliomas. The aim of this study was to address the prognostic value of PROX1 in grade II gliomas.Methods:A total of 116 samples were evaluated for the presence of PROX1 protein. The number of immunopositive cells was used as a variable in survival analysis, together with established prognostic factors for this patient group.Results:Higher PROX1 protein was associated with poor outcome. In the multivariate analysis, PROX1 was identified as an independent factor for survival (P=0.024), together with the presence of mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 R132H protein, and with combined losses of chromosomal arms 1p/19q in oligodendrocytic tumours.Conclusion:PROX1 is a novel predictor of survival for grade II gliomas.
  • Fortner, Renée T., et al. (författare)
  • Anti-Mullerian hormone and endometrial cancer a multi-cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 117:9, s. 1412-1418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Mullerian ducts are the embryological precursors of the female reproductive tract, including the uterus; anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has a key role in the regulation of foetal sexual differentiation. Anti-Mullerian hormone inhibits endometrial tumour growth in experimental models by stimulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. To date, there are no prospective epidemiologic data on circulating AMH and endometrial cancer risk. Methods: We investigated this association among women premenopausal at blood collection in a multicohort study including participants from eight studies located in the United States, Europe, and China. We identified 329 endometrial cancer cases and 339 matched controls. AntiMullerian hormone concentrations in blood were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across tertiles and for a doubling of AMH concentrations (ORlog2). Subgroup analyses were performed by ages at blood donation and diagnosis, oral contraceptive use, and tumour characteristics. Results: Anti-Mullerian hormone was not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer overall (ORlog(2): 1.07 (0.99-1.17)), or with any of the examined subgroups. Conclusions: Although experimental models implicate AMH in endometrial cancer growth inhibition, our findings do not support a role for circulating AMH in the aetiology of endometrial cancer.
  • Frisch, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Benign anal lesions, inflammatory bowel disease and risk for high-riskive and -negative anal carcinoma
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 78:11, s. 1534-1538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A central role in anal carcinogenesis of high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) was recently established, but the possible role of benign anal lesions has not been addressed in hrHPV-positive and -negative anal cancers. As part of a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden, we interviewed 417 case patients (93 men and 324 women) diagnosed during the period 1991-94 with invasive or in situ anal cancer, 534 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum and 554 population controls. Anal cancer specimens (n = 388) were tested for HPV by the polymerase chain reaction. Excluding the 5 years immediately before diagnosis, men, but not women, with anal cancer reported a history of haemorrhoids [multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.2] and unspecific anal irritation (OR 4.5; CI 2.3-8.7) significantly more often than controls. Women with anal cancer did not report a history of benign anal lesions other than anal abscess to any greater extent than controls, but they had used anal suppositories more often (OR 1.5; CI 1.1-2.0). Patients with hrHPV in anal cancer tissue (84%) and those without (16%) reported similar histories of most benign anal lesions, but anal fissure or fistula was more common among hrHPV-positive cases. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, reported by <1% of study participants, were not associated with anal cancer risk. The higher proportion of hrHPV-positive anal cancers among case patients with anal fissure or fistula suggests that such mucosal lesions may provide direct viral access to basal epithelial layers. Since risk associations with benign anal lesions in men may be confounded by unreported sexual behaviour, and since risk associations in women were generally negative, it seems unlikely that benign anal lesions act as promoters in hrHPV-associated anal carcinogenesis. Moreover, benign anal lesions appear not to be linked to an alternative, hrHPV-unassociated causal pathway to anal cancer. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were not supported as causal factors for anal cancer.
  • Fröberg, M., et al. (författare)
  • Human papillomavirus 'reflex' testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 99:4, s. 563-568
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) 'reflex genotyping' in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all, 63% (70/112) of the samples were high-risk (HR) HPV (HR-HPV) positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between high-grade cervical lesions and HR-HPV (P = 0.019), among which HPV 16, 18, and 31 were the most important. The negative predictive value of HR-HPV detection for histologically confirmed high-grade lesions was 100%. An age limit for HPV reflex testing may be motivated in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), because of high HR-HPV prevalence among younger women. By using HPV reflex genotyping, additional extensive workup can safely be avoided in about 50% of all cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ( ASCUS) and LSIL among women > ;= 30 years. This screening strategy could potentially reduce the total abnormal cytology-reporting rate in the Swedish screening programme by about 1% and provide more accurately directed follow-up, guided by cytological appearance and HPV test results.
  • Ghuan, Sundeep, et al. (författare)
  • Serum inflammatory markers and colorectal cancer risk and survival
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:10, s. 1358-1365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Inflammation has been linked with development of some cancers. We investigated systemic inflammation in relation to colorectal cancer incidence and subsequent survival using common serum inflammatory markersDesign: A cohort of men and women aged 20 years and older in greater Stockholm area with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin measured between 1986 and 1999 were included (n-325 599). A subset of these had baseline measurements of haptoglobin and leukocytes. Multivariable Cox regression was performed to assess risk of colorectal cancer by levels of inflammatory markers, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by circulating glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Overall and CRC-specific death following diagnosis were assessed as secondary outcomes.Results: A total of 4764 individuals were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. A positive association between haptoglobin and colorectal cancer incidence was found (hazard ratio (HR): 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06-1.28). A positive association was also observed with leukocytes (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42). No evidence of association was noted between CRP and colorectal cancer risk. Higher risks of all-cause death were seen with haptoglobin and leukocytes levels. Higher haptoglobin levels were linked with an increased risk of colorectal cancer death (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01-1.41).Conclusions: Prediagnostic systemic inflammation may impact colorectal cancer incidence and survival; therefore, prompting investigations linking inflammatory pathways preceding colorectal cancer with disease severity and progression.
  • Gremel, G., et al. (författare)
  • Functional and prognostic relevance of the homeobox protein MSX2 in malignant melanoma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 105:4, s. 565-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The homeobox containing transcription factor MSX2 is a key regulator of embryonic development and has been implicated to have a role in breast and pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Using a selection of two-and three-dimensional in vitro assays and tissue microarrays (TMAs), the clinical and functional relevance of MSX2 in malignant melanoma was explored. A doxycyline-inducible over-expression system was applied to study the relevance of MSX2 in vitro. For TMA construction, tumour material from 218 melanoma patients was used. RESULTS: Ectopic expression of MSX2 resulted in the induction of apoptosis and reduced the invasive capacity of melanoma cells in three-dimensional culture. MSX2 over-expression was shown to affect several signalling pathways associated with cell invasion and survival. Downregulation of N-Cadherin, induction of p21 and inhibition of both BCL2 and Survivin were observed. Cytoplasmic MSX2 expression was found to correlate significantly with increased recurrence-free survival (P = 0.008). Nuclear expression of MSX2 did not result in significant survival correlations, suggesting that the beneficial effect of MSX2 may be independent of its DNA binding activity. CONCLUSIONS: MSX2 may be an important regulator of melanoma cell invasion and survival. Cytoplasmic expression of the protein was identified as biomarker for good prognosis in malignant melanoma patients.
  • Guren, Tormod Kyrre, et al. (författare)
  • Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer final survival analyses and extended RAS data from the NORDIC-VII study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 116:10, s. 1271-1278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival analysis with BRAF and extended RAS mutational status, 5 years after the primary analysis.Methods: A total of 566 patients were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population of the NORDIC-VII study. Updated survival status was obtained from 176 patients who were alive in the primary survival analyses. Samples from 223 tumours previously found to be KRAS (exon 2) and BRAF (V600E) wild-type, were re-analysed for KRAS (exons 3 and 4) and NRAS (exons 2-4) mutations.Results: Including the extended RAS analyses, RAS and BRAF mutational status was available from 457 patients (81% of the ITT population). RAS was mutated in 46% and BRAF in 12% of the tumours. RAS and BRAF, if mutated, were negative prognostic factors. The updated analyses confirmed the finding of the primary report that cetuximab did not provide any additional benefit when added to FLOX in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy.Conclusions: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical benefit, but the data suggested an effect of cetuximab monotherapy in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours in the NORDIC-VII cohort. The data were compatible with a negative interaction between cetuximab and the Nordic FLOX chemotherapy backbone.
  • Gustafsson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Efficency of organized and oppurtunistic cytological screening for cancer in situ of the cervix
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 72:2, s. 498-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced by removal of precursor lesions detected at cytological screening. Organised screening, i.e. regular invitation of defined target groups, is generally considered more effective than opportunistic screening. The latter method however, is predominant in most settings. There is no scientific basis for advocating one type of screening or the other. Our aim was to compare the two types and to analyse their efficiency. We analysed 466,275 smears taken in an open cohort of 118,890 women during 1969-88. A computerised database permitted standardised classification of all smears and complete ascertainment of cancer in situ through record linkage. The number of in situ cancers detected per 1000 smears, the detection ratio, was used as an outcome measure both in univariate analyses and in multivariate logistic regression models. Cancer in situ was detected in 1076 women in the study cohort, with a detection ratio of 3.0 at organised and 2.1 at opportunistic screening, yielding an unadjusted odds ratio of 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.79). After adjustment for age and time period, the probability of detecting cancer in situ was around 25% higher with opportunistic than with organised screening (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.09-1.46). This difference in favour of opportunistic screening was most pronounced in the first 10 year period and disappeared during the last decade. The difference in efficiency between organised and opportunistic screening in the detection of cancer in situ was slight, if any. The dogma that organised screening is significantly more efficient than the opportunistic type needs reconsideration.
  • Gustavsson, Inger M., et al. (författare)
  • Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 118:6, s. 896-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:This randomised study compared the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-positive (CIN2+) based on histology in women performing repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid (VF) for human papillomavirus (HPV) test with a control group following the ordinary screening by Pap smear cytology.Methods:36390 women aged 30–49 years scheduled for invitation to organised screening were randomised in two groups, one to perform self-sampling of VF for HPV test (n=17 997, HPV arm) and the other group to perform screening by PAP smear cytology (n=18 393, control arm). HPV positive women in the HPV arm repeated the self-sampling and the HPV test on average 4.4 months later and those with two consecutive positive HPV tests were referred to colposcopy. Outcome was CIN2+ based on histology during 18-month follow-up.Results:Participation rate was 47% in the HPV arm and 39% in the control arm. The HPV prevalence in the first self-sampling was 6.9%, and 71% of these women were HPV positive in their second test. For the per-protocol approach, cumulative prevalence of histological CIN2+ in the HPV arm was 20.2 per 1000 women screened as compared to 10.8 in the control arm. The cumulative prevalence of CIN2+ diagnosed per 1000 years screened was 160.8 in the HPV arm as compared with 25.4 in the control arm.Conclusions:Repeated self-sampling of VF and HPV test had more than a two-fold higher discovery rate of CIN2+ per 1000 women screened as compared with PAP smear cytology.
  • Gyllensten, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Short-time repeat high-risk HPV testing by self-sampling for screening of cervical cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 105:5, s. 694-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in primary screening for cervical cancer is considered more sensitive, but less specific, in comparison with Pap-smear cytology. Women with persistent HPV infections have a higher risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the gain in specificity for detection of histologically confirmed CIN2+ lesions achieved by short-time repeat testing for high-risk HPV in women aged 30-65 years, with the primary sample for HPV analysis taken by self-sampling. METHODS: A total of 8000 women in Uppsala County, aged 30-65 years, who had not attended organised screening for 6 years or longer, were offered self-sampling of vaginal fluid at home and the samples sent for HPV typing. Of these, 8% (669) were not possible to contact or had performed hysterectomy. Women positive for high-risk HPV in the self-sampling test were invited for a follow-up HPV test and a cervical biopsy on average 3 months after the initial HPV test. RESULTS: In all, 39% (2850/7331) of invited women chose to perform self-sampling of vaginal fluid at home. High-risk HPV infection was found in 6.6% (188) of the women. In all, 89% of the women testing HPV positive performed a follow-up examination, on average 2.7 months, after the first test and 59% of these women were HPV positive in the follow-up test. The prevalence of CIN2+ lesions in women with an initial HPV-positive test was 23% (95% CI 18-30%) and in women with two consecutive HPV-positive tests was 41% (95% CI 31-51%). In women with two positive HPV tests, the prevalence of CIN2+ lesions varied from 49% in women at age 30-39 years to 24% in women at age 50-65 years. Short-time repeat HPV testing increased the specificity for detection of CIN2+ lesions from about 94.2% to 97.8%. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV16 (32%), followed by HPV18/45 (19%) and HPV 33/52/58 (19%). CONCLUSION: The short-time persistence of high-risk HPV infection in this age group was about 60%. Repeat testing for high-risk HPV using self-sampling of vaginal fluid can be used to increase the specificity in the screening for cervical cancer in women aged 30-65 years.
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