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31.
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34.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 134:3, s. 612-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer in men and women. We analyzed data from a prospective nested case-control study among 662 incident colon cancer cases matched within risk sets to 662 controls. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The percent effect change and corresponding CIs were estimated after adjusting for biomarkers shown to be associated with colon cancer risk. After multivariable adjustment, WC was associated with colon cancer risk in men (top vs. bottom tertile RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.65; ptrend  = 0.02) and in women (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56; ptrend  = 0.03). BMI was associated with risk only in men. The association of WC with colon cancer was accounted mostly for by three biomarkers, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-molecular-weight adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor, which in combination explained 46% (95% CI 37-57%) of the association in men and 50% (95% CI 40-65%) of the association in women. Similar results were observed for the associations with BMI in men. These data suggest that alterations in levels of these metabolic biomarkers may represent a primary mechanism of action in the relation of adiposity with colon cancer. Further studies are warranted to determine whether altering their concentrations may reduce colon cancer risk.
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37.
  • Allemani, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer survival in the US and Europe: a CONCORD high-resolution study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 132:5, s. 1170-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardized survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences. Population-based data on stage at diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up were collected for about 20,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 15-99 years during 1996-98 in 7 US states and 12 European countries. Age-standardized net survival and the excess hazard of death up to 5 years after diagnosis were estimated by jurisdiction (registry, country, European region), age and stage with flexible parametric models. Breast cancers were generally less advanced in the US than in Europe. Stage also varied less between US states than between European jurisdictions. Early, node-negative tumors were more frequent in the US (39%) than in Europe (32%), while locally advanced tumors were twice as frequent in Europe (8%), and metastatic tumors of similar frequency (5-6%). Net survival in Northern, Western and Southern Europe (81-84%) was similar to that in the US (84%), but lower in Eastern Europe (69%). For the first 3 years after diagnosis the mean excess hazard was higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere: the difference was most marked for women aged 70-99 years, and mainly confined to women with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. Differences in breast cancer survival between Europe and the US in the late 1990s were mainly explained by lower survival in Eastern Europe, where low healthcare expenditure may have constrained the quality of treatment.
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38.
  • Allen, Naomi E, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective analysis of the association between macronutrient intake and renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 125:4, s. 982-987
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous case-control studies have suggested that a high intake of animal foods and its associated nutrients are associated with an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma, although data from prospective studies are limited. We report here on the relationship between macronutrient intake and renal cell carcinoma incidence among 435,293 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of dietary intake of fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber and cholesterol and risk of renal cell carcinoma adjusted for age, sex, center, height, body mass index, physical activity, education, smoking, menopausal status, alcohol and energy intake. During an average 8.8 years of follow-up, 507 renal cell carcinoma cases occurred. Risk of renal cell carcinoma was not associated with macronutrient intake, including nutrients derived from animal sources. Our results indicate that macronutrient intake is not associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma in this cohort of European men and women. (C) 2009 UICC
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39.
  • Allen, Naomi E, et al. (författare)
  • Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 132:3, s. 635-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by sex, age at recruitment and centre and further adjusted for smoking status and duration, body mass index and total energy intake. After an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 1,416 new cases of urothelial cell carcinoma were identified. After allowing for measurement error, a 3% increase in the consumption of energy intake from animal protein was associated with a 15% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-30%; p(trend) = 0.01) and a 2% increase in energy from plant protein intake was associated with a 23% lower risk (95% CI: 36-7%, p(trend) = 0.006). Dietary intake of fat, carbohydrate, fibre or calcium was not associated with risk. These findings suggest that animal and/or plant protein may affect the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma, and examination of these associations in other studies is needed.
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40.
  • Almquist, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Serum levels of vitamin D, PTH, calcium and breast cancer risk - a prospective nested case-control study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 127:9, s. 2159-2168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies indicate that calcium and its regulating hormones, i.e. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D, might affect breast cancer risk. Evidence also suggests that this relationship could be influenced by menopausal status and BMI. We examined breast cancer risk related to pre-diagnostic serum levels of vitamin D (25OHD(2) and 25OHD(3)), PTH and calcium using a nested case-control design within the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. There were 764 incident breast cancer cases, and 764 controls were selected by incidence density matching, using age as the underlying time scale, matching on calendar time at inclusion, menopausal status and age at inclusion. Using logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for breast cancer risk in different quartiles of the analysed factors. All analyses were adjusted for risk factors for breast cancer, and for levels of albumin, creatinine and phosphate. Analyses were repeated stratified for BMI and menopausal status, and for low vs. high levels of 25OHD(3), PTH and calcium. There was a weak, non-significant inverse association between breast cancer risk and 25OHD(3), and the OR for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartiles, as compared to the first, were 0.84(0.60-1.15), 0.84(0.60-1.17), and 0.93(0.66-1.33). Serum calcium was positively associated with breast cancer in pre-menopausal women (OR for the 4(th) quartile = 3.10:1.33-7.22 and p for quartile trend=0.04), and in women with BMI>25 (OR for the 4(th) quartile=1.94:1.12-3.37 and p for trend<0.01). There was no association between baseline serum PTH and breast cancer risk. (c) 2010 UICC.
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