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Sökning: L773:0025 7974

  • Resultat 21-30 av 54
  • Föregående 12[3]456Nästa
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21.
  • Le, Ngai Kien, et al. (författare)
  • High prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative carbapenem resistant strains in Vietnamese pediatric ICUs A multi-centre point prevalence survey
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals. Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year. A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20.8%), and surgery/trauma (11.3%). Intubation rate was 47.8%, central venous catheter 29.4%, peripheral venous catheter 86.2%, urinary catheter 14.6%, and hemodialysis/filtration 1.7%. HAI was diagnosed in 33.1% of the cases: pneumonia (52.2%), septicemia (26.4%), surgical site infection (2%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (2%). Significant risk factors for HAI included age under 7 months, intubation and infection at admission. Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 18 cases, with 81% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most children (87.6%) received antibiotics, with an average of 1.6 antibiotics per case. Colistin was administered to 96 patients, 93% with HAI and 49% with culture confirmed carbapenem resistance. The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use.
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22.
  • Ljungman, Lisa, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Study protocol for the Fex-Can Childhood project An observational study and a randomized controlled trial focusing on sexual dysfunction and fertility-related distress in young adult survivors of childhood cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 99:28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study protocol describes the Fex-Can Childhood project, comprising two studies: The Fex-Can Childhood observational study (OS) and the Fex-Can Childhood randomized controlled trial (RCT). The Fex-Can Childhood OS aims to determine the prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction and fertility-related distress in young adult childhood cancer survivors (aged 19-40) compared to an age matched comparison group; the Fex-Can Childhood RCT will evaluate the effect of a web-based psycho-educational intervention (Fex-Can intervention) on sexual dysfunction and fertility-related distress. Methods: The Fex-Can Childhood OS will have a population-based cross-sectional design. All individuals treated for childhood cancer in Sweden at the age of 0 to 17 years (current age 19-40) will be identified through the National Quality Registry for Childhood Cancer. Established self-reported instruments will be used to measure sexual function, fertility-related distress, body image, anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life. Self-efficacy related to sexual function and fertility, and fertility-related knowledge, will be assessed by study-specific measures. Clinical variables will be collected from the registry. Results will be compared to an age-matched comparison group from the general population. Participants in the Fex-Can Childhood OS who report a high level of sexual dysfunction and/or fertility-related distress will be invited to participate in the RCT. The Fex-Can intervention comprises two programs: The Fex-Can Sex and the Fex-Can Fertility targeting sexual dysfunction and fertility-related distress, respectively. The control condition will be a wait-list. Sexual function and fertility-related distress will be the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes include body image, anxiety and depression, health-related quality of life and self-efficacy related to sexual function and fertility. Post- and follow-up assessments will be conducted directly after end of intervention (primary end point), at 3 months and 6 months after end of intervention. Additionally, a process-evaluation including study-specific items and a qualitative interview will be conducted. Discussion: The Fex-Can Childhood project will advance knowledge in the areas of sexual function and fertility-related distress among young adult survivors of childhood cancer. If the Fex-Can intervention proves to be efficacious, steps will be taken to implement it in the follow-up care provided to this population.
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23.
  • Mbanya, Jean Claude, et al. (författare)
  • Management of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Africa : A post-hoc cohort analysis of 12 African countries participating in the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (Wave 7)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 99:25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a paucity of information on real world management of African adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We aimed to describe a cohort of African adults with T1DM. The International Diabetes Management Practices Study is an observational survey conducted from 2005 to 2017. Data were collected in seven individual waves from countries in Asia, Africa, East Europe, and Latin America. Wave 7 was conducted from 2016 to 2017 and the African cohort included 12 countries. Questionnaires were administered to clinicians and patients. Analyses were mainly descriptive. Logistic regressions were performed to identify predictive factors for glycaemic control. A total of 788 patients were enrolled in the study. HbA1c values were available for 712 patients; only 16.6% had HbA1c values <7%. A total of 196 (24.9%) reported being hospitalized in the preceding year, with the most common reasons being diabetic ketoacidosis (58.1%, 93/160) and hypoglycaemia (31.1%; 52/167). Over half of the patients (55.4%) stated that the cost of test strips limited regular glycemic monitoring; a minority of patients (15%, 120/788) received structured diabetes education. Predictors of HbA1c <7% included patients receiving diabetes education (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval, CI] = 2.707 [1.157-6.335]P = .022), following a healthy diet and exercise plan (OR [95% CI] = 2.253 [1.206-4.209],P< .001) and self-managing (monitoring glucose levels and adjusting insulin accordingly) (OR [95% CI] 2.508 [1.500-4.191]P < .001). African adults with T1DM have suboptimal glycemic control with almost one-quarter reporting hospitalization within the preceding year. Most patients felt comfortable with self-adjustment of insulin dose but said that the cost of test strips was the main factor that limited regular monitoring. Reducing direct costs of testing strips and insulin, and improving education will address major challenges within these settings.
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24.
  • Meng, Wen-Jian, et al. (författare)
  • MicroRNA Expression Profile Reveals miR-17-92 and miR-143-145 Cluster in Synchronous Colorectal Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 94:32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The expression of abnormal microRNA (miRNA, miR) is a ubiquitous feature of colorectal cancer (CRC). The pathological features and clinical behaviors of synchronous CRC have been comprehensively described; however, the expression profile of miRNA and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) in synchronous CRC has not been elucidated. In the present study, the expression profile of miRNA and snoRNA in 5 synchronous CRCs, along with the matched normal colorectal tissue was evaluated by microarray. Function and pathway analyses of putative targets, predicted from miRNA-mRNA interaction, were performed. Moreover, we analyzed clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of 22 patients with synchronous CRC and 579 solitary CRCs in a retrospective cohort study. We found a global dysregulation of miRNAs, including an oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster and oncosuppressive miR-143-145 cluster, and snoRNAs in synchronous CRC. Differential miRNA rather than snoRNA expression was robust enough to distinguish synchronous cancer from normal mucosa. Function analysis of putative targets suggested that miRNA clusters may modulate multiple effectors of oncogenic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of synchronous CRC. A comparison of normal mucosa between synchronous and solitary CRC suggested a differential genetic background of synchronous CRC from solitary CRC during carcinogenesis. Compared with solitary cancer patients, synchronous cases exhibited multiple extra-colonic cancers (P=0.012), coexistence of adenoma (P=0.012), microsatellite instability (P=0.024), and less glucose transporter 1 (P=0.037). Aberrant miRNA expression profiles could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for synchronous CRC. Our findings represent the first comprehensive miRNA and snoRNA expression signatures for synchronous CRC, implicating that the miRNAs and snoRNAs may present therapeutic targets for synchronous CRC.
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28.
  • Mostafavi, Behrouz, et al. (författare)
  • Liver function in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient individuals at 37 to 40 years of age
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 96:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is a risk factor for liver disease, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in PiZZ adults is unknown. The risk of liver disease in adults with moderate AAT deficiency (PiSZ) is also unknown. A cohort of 127 PiZZ, 2 PiZnull, 54 PiSZ, and 1 PiSnull individuals were identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program between 1972 and 1974, when all 200, 000 newborn infants in Sweden were screened for AAT deficiency. The cohort has been followed up since birth. Our aim was to study liver function and signs of liver disease in this cohort at 37 to 40 years of age in comparison with a matched, random sample of control subjects identified from the population registry. Eighty seven PiZZ, 32 PiSZ, and 92 control subjects (PiMM) answered a questionnaire on medication and alcohol consumption and provided blood samples. Liver stiffness was assessed by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in 32 PiZZ, 15 PiSZ, and 51 PiMM subjects. The median of liver function tests and procollagen-III-peptide were within the normal range in all Pi subgroups. However, the PiZZ men had significantly higher plasma bilirubin than the PiMM men (P=0.018). Plasma ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P=0.009) and the PiSZ men (P=0.021) compared with the PiMM men. The median of liver stiffness was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P=0.037) and the PiSZ men (P=0.032) compared with the PiMM men. The PiZZ women taking medication influencing liver enzymes had significantly higher GGT than the PiMM women on the corresponding treatment (P=0.023). These AAT-deficient individuals identified by neonatal screening have normal plasma levels of liver function tests, and no clinical signs indicating liver disease at the age of 37 to 40 years. However, bilirubin, GGT, and liver stiffness are significantly higher in PiZZ men than PiMM men.
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29.
  • Mörse, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974. ; 95:33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES). Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered the study. Levels of AMH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone were monitored at diagnosis and every 3 to 4 months during, and regularly for a mean of 2.6 years after treatment. A profound decline in AMH was seen in the majority of the 21 study patients 3 to 4 months after the beginning of treatment, the exception being patients with WT, of whom 60% showed no such decline. During the remaining treatment, all patients except those with WT not treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy or stem cell transplantation (SCT) had AMH below detection limit. After completion of treatment, patients with OS and WT (without whole abdominal radiotherapy and SCT) recovered in AMH and had FSH in the normal range. In contrast, ES patients showed no AMH recovery and highly fluctuating FSH in the first years of follow-up, except for the 2 youngest patients, who had a late, slow AMH recovery. In conclusion, young female ES patients already showed signs of severe ovarian dysfunction during the first years after cancer treatment similar to patients treated with SCT and abdominal radiotherapy, in contrast to females with WT and OS. Fertility counseling and information concerning fertility preservation procedures should be considered before starting to treat young females with ES.
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30.
  • Nilsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden: A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:11, s. e3047-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable. In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability. We reviewed 3301 patients records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in >= 65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being >= 65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay. We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable.
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