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  • Föregående 123[4]56Nästa
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31.
  • Mostafavi, Behrouz, et al. (författare)
  • Liver function in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient individuals at 37 to 40 years of age
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974. ; 96:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is a risk factor for liver disease, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in PiZZ adults is unknown. The risk of liver disease in adults with moderate AAT deficiency (PiSZ) is also unknown. A cohort of 127 PiZZ, 2 PiZnull, 54 PiSZ, and 1 PiSnull individuals were identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program between 1972 and 1974, when all 200, 000 newborn infants in Sweden were screened for AAT deficiency. The cohort has been followed up since birth. Our aim was to study liver function and signs of liver disease in this cohort at 37 to 40 years of age in comparison with a matched, random sample of control subjects identified from the population registry. Eighty seven PiZZ, 32 PiSZ, and 92 control subjects (PiMM) answered a questionnaire on medication and alcohol consumption and provided blood samples. Liver stiffness was assessed by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in 32 PiZZ, 15 PiSZ, and 51 PiMM subjects. The median of liver function tests and procollagen-III-peptide were within the normal range in all Pi subgroups. However, the PiZZ men had significantly higher plasma bilirubin than the PiMM men (P=0.018). Plasma ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P=0.009) and the PiSZ men (P=0.021) compared with the PiMM men. The median of liver stiffness was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P=0.037) and the PiSZ men (P=0.032) compared with the PiMM men. The PiZZ women taking medication influencing liver enzymes had significantly higher GGT than the PiMM women on the corresponding treatment (P=0.023). These AAT-deficient individuals identified by neonatal screening have normal plasma levels of liver function tests, and no clinical signs indicating liver disease at the age of 37 to 40 years. However, bilirubin, GGT, and liver stiffness are significantly higher in PiZZ men than PiMM men.
32.
  • Mörse, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974. ; 95:33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES). Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered the study. Levels of AMH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone were monitored at diagnosis and every 3 to 4 months during, and regularly for a mean of 2.6 years after treatment. A profound decline in AMH was seen in the majority of the 21 study patients 3 to 4 months after the beginning of treatment, the exception being patients with WT, of whom 60% showed no such decline. During the remaining treatment, all patients except those with WT not treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy or stem cell transplantation (SCT) had AMH below detection limit. After completion of treatment, patients with OS and WT (without whole abdominal radiotherapy and SCT) recovered in AMH and had FSH in the normal range. In contrast, ES patients showed no AMH recovery and highly fluctuating FSH in the first years of follow-up, except for the 2 youngest patients, who had a late, slow AMH recovery. In conclusion, young female ES patients already showed signs of severe ovarian dysfunction during the first years after cancer treatment similar to patients treated with SCT and abdominal radiotherapy, in contrast to females with WT and OS. Fertility counseling and information concerning fertility preservation procedures should be considered before starting to treat young females with ES.
33.
  • Nilsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden: A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:11, s. e3047
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable. In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability. We reviewed 3301 patients records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in &amp;gt;= 65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being &amp;gt;= 65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay. We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable.</p>
34.
  • Nilsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable. In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability. We reviewed 3301 patients' records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in &gt;= 65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being &gt;= 65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay. We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable.</p>
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35.
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36.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background:To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up.Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models.Results:General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (P&lt;0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSE (P&gt;0.42) and PPA groups (P&gt;0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (P&lt;0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the PPA group (P&gt;0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (P&gt;0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (P&gt;0.02), but not in the NSEB (P&gt;0.25) or the PPA (P&gt;0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors.Conclusion:This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.</p>
37.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-Associated disorders A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-Associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up. Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models. Results: General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (P&lt;0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSE (P&gt;0.42) and PPA groups (P&gt;0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (P&lt;0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the PPA group (P&gt;0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (P&lt;0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (P&gt;0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (P&gt;0.02), but not in the NSEB (P&gt;0.25) or the PPA (P&gt;0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors. Conclusion: This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.</p>
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38.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34, s. e4430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background:To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up.Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models.Results:General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (Pamp;lt;0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months Pamp;lt;0.01) compared to the NSE (Pamp;gt;0.42) and PPA groups (Pamp;gt;0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (Pamp;lt;0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (Pamp;lt;0.01) compared to the PPA group (Pamp;gt;0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (Pamp;lt;0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (Pamp;gt;0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (Pamp;gt;0.02), but not in the NSEB (Pamp;gt;0.25) or the PPA (Pamp;gt;0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors.Conclusion:This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.</p>
39.
  • Patel, Kieran, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of postural changes on cardiovascular parameters across gender
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:28, s. e4149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Introduction: We investigated the effect of postural changes on various cardiovascular parameters across gender. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (16 male, 12 female) were observed at rest (supine) and subjected to 3 interventions; head-down tilt (HDT), HDT with lower body negative pressure (HDT + LBNP at -30 mmHg), and head-up tilt (HUT), each for 10 minutes separated by a 10 minutes recovery period. Methods: Measurements were recorded for heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive differences between the normal-to-normal intervals, heart rate variability-low frequency (LFRRI), heart rate variability-high frequency (HFRRI), low frequency/high frequency ratio (LFRRI/HFRRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), index of contractility (IC), left ventricular work index, and left ventricular ejection time. Results: Across all cardiovascular parameters, there was a significant main effect of the intervention applied but there was no significant main effect of gender across all parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that there are no specific gender differences in regards to the measured variables under the conditions of this study. Furthermore, these results suggest that in healthy subjects, there appears to be evidence that LBNP partially elicits similar cardiovascular responses to HUT, which supports the use of LBNP as an intervention to counteract the effects of central hypovolemia.</p>
40.
  • Privšek, Ernest, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiological and clinical implications of blood pressure measured in seated versus supine position
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - 0025-7974. ; 97:31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The evidence concerning how posture influences blood pressure is not consistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to consider the clinical and epidemiological implications of blood pressure measured in seated versus supine position, and to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes on these differences.This study included 1298 individuals (mean age 58.6 ± 11.8 years) from the Vara-Skövde cohort at the 10 years' follow-up visit in 2014. Physical examination included blood pressure measurements in seated and supine position. Self-reported information on diabetes status, hypertension, ongoing medication, leisure time physical activity, and smoking habits were obtained. Linear regression models accounted for differences in age, sex, BMI, and known diabetes.Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the seated position [1.2 mm Hg, P < .001, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.79-1.54 and 4.2 mm Hg, P < .001, 95% CI 4.08-4.71, respectively]. The prevalence of high blood pressure in seated position was higher (19.9%) than in supine position (13.5%). Linear regression analysis showed that age (β = -0.215, P < .001) and diabetes (β = -0.072, P = .012) were associated with smaller differences in postural diastolic blood pressure and BMI (β = 0.124, P < .001) with greater difference.This study showed substantial postural differences in blood pressures measured in office. Measuring blood pressure in the supine position shows lower blood pressure readings when compared with the seated position. Clinicians should be aware of how age, BMI, and diabetes influence these differences.
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