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  • Föregående 123[4]56Nästa
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31.
  • Nilsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable. In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability. We reviewed 3301 patients' records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in >= 65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being >= 65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay. We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable.
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32.
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33.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders : A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up.Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models.Results:General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (P<0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months P<0.01) compared to the NSE (P>0.42) and PPA groups (P>0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (P<0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (P<0.01) compared to the PPA group (P>0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (P<0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (P>0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (P>0.02), but not in the NSEB (P>0.25) or the PPA (P>0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors.Conclusion:This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.
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34.
  • Overmeer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-Associated disorders A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To investigate the effect of neck-specific exercise with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach and prescribed physical activity (PPA) on general pain disability and psychological factors in chronic whiplash-Associated disorders (WAD), grade 2 and 3, with a 2-year follow-up. Methods:A randomized controlled multi-centre study of 3 exercise interventions (NSE, NSEB or PPA) including a 2-year follow-up. A total of 216 volunteers with chronic WAD were recruited and 194 were analyzed, mean age 40.4 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11.4). Measures of general pain disability, pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and kinesiophobia were evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with linear mixed models. Results: General pain disability decreased by 28% in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 months (P<0.001) and the improvements in disability were maintained over time (6, 12 and 24 months P<0.01) compared to the NSE (P>0.42) and PPA groups (P>0.43). Pain catastrophizing decreased in the NSE group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (P<0.01) and in the NSEB group from baseline to 3 and 24 months (P<0.01) compared to the PPA group (P>0.82) that showed no change over time. The NSE group improved in kinesiophobia over time from baseline to12 months (P<0.01) compared to the NSEB (P=0.052) and the PPA groups (P>0.74). Anxiety decreased over time from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the NSE group (P>0.02), but not in the NSEB (P>0.25) or the PPA (P>0.50) groups. The PPA had no effect on general disability or any of the measured psychological factors. Conclusion: This randomised controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up shows that physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise with or without the addition of a behavioural approach had superior outcome on general disability and most psychological factors compared to the mere prescription of physical activity.
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35.
  • Patel, Kieran, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of postural changes on cardiovascular parameters across gender
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:28, s. e4149-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We investigated the effect of postural changes on various cardiovascular parameters across gender. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (16 male, 12 female) were observed at rest (supine) and subjected to 3 interventions; head-down tilt (HDT), HDT with lower body negative pressure (HDT + LBNP at -30 mmHg), and head-up tilt (HUT), each for 10 minutes separated by a 10 minutes recovery period. Methods: Measurements were recorded for heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive differences between the normal-to-normal intervals, heart rate variability-low frequency (LFRRI), heart rate variability-high frequency (HFRRI), low frequency/high frequency ratio (LFRRI/HFRRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), index of contractility (IC), left ventricular work index, and left ventricular ejection time. Results: Across all cardiovascular parameters, there was a significant main effect of the intervention applied but there was no significant main effect of gender across all parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that there are no specific gender differences in regards to the measured variables under the conditions of this study. Furthermore, these results suggest that in healthy subjects, there appears to be evidence that LBNP partially elicits similar cardiovascular responses to HUT, which supports the use of LBNP as an intervention to counteract the effects of central hypovolemia.
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36.
  • Privsek, E., et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiological and clinical implications of blood pressure measured in seated versus supine position
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 97:31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The evidence concerning how posture influences blood pressure is not consistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to consider the clinical and epidemiological implications of blood pressure measured in seated versus supine position, and to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes on these differences. This study included 1298 individuals (mean age 58.6 +/- 11.8 years) from the Vara-Skovde cohort at the 10 years' follow-up visit in 2014. Physical examination included blood pressure measurements in seated and supine position. Self-reported information on diabetes status, hypertension, ongoing medication, leisure time physical activity, and smoking habits were obtained. Linear regression models accounted for differences in age, sex, BMI, and known diabetes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the seated position [1.2mm Hg, P<.001, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.79-1.54 and 4.2mm Hg, P<.001, 95% CI 4.08-4.71, respectively]. The prevalence of high blood pressure in seated position was higher (19.9%) than in supine position (13.5%). Linear regression analysis showed that age (beta=-0.215, P<.001) and diabetes (beta=-0.072, P=.012) were associated with smaller differences in postural diastolic blood pressure and BMI (beta=0.124, P<.001) with greater difference. This study showed substantial postural differences in blood pressures measured in office. Measuring blood pressure in the supine position shows lower blood pressure readings when compared with the seated position. Clinicians should be aware of how age, BMI, and diabetes influence these differences.
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37.
  • Qvarnstrom, M., et al. (författare)
  • Persistence to antihypertensive drug classes: A cohort study using the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine. - 0025-7974. ; 95:40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to study persistence to, and switching between, antihypertensive drug classes and to determine factors associated with poor persistence.This was an observational cohort study. The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database includes data from medical records, socioeconomic data, filled prescriptions, and hospitalizations from national registries for 75,000 patients with hypertension. Patients included in the study were initiated on antihypertensive drug treatment in primary healthcare in 2006 to 2007. We defined class persistence as the proportion remaining on the initial drug class, including 30 days of gap. Patients with a filled prescription of another antihypertensive drug class after discontinuation of the initial drug, including 30 days of gap, were classified as switchers. Persistence to the various drug classes were compared with that for diuretics.We identified 4997 patients (mean age 6012 years in men and 63 +/- 13 years in women). Out of these, 95 (2%) filled their first prescription for fixed combination therapy and 4902 (98%) for monotherapy, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (37%), angiotensin receptor blockers (4%), beta blockers (21%), calcium channel blockers (8%), and diuretics (28%). Persistence to the initial drug class was 57% after 1 year and 43% after 2 years. There were no differences in persistence between diuretics and any of the other antihypertensive drug classes, after adjustment for confounders. Discontinuation (all adjusted) was more common in men (P=0.004), younger patients (P<0.001), those with mild systolic blood pressure elevation (P<0.001), and patients born outside the Nordic countries (P<0.001). Among 1295 patients who switched drug class after their first prescription, only 21% had a blood pressure recorded before the switch occurred; and out them 69% still had high blood pressures.In conclusion, there appears to be no difference in drug class persistence between diuretics and other major antihypertensive drug classes, when factors known to be associated with poor persistence are taken into account.
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38.
  • Rahmqvist, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Influenza-related healthcare visits, hospital admissions, and direct medical costs for all children aged 2 to 17 years in a defined Swedish region, monitored for 7 years
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 95:33, s. UNSP e4599-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The seasonal variation of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) is well known. However, studies assessing the factual direct costs of ILI for an entire population are rare. Methods: In this register study, we analyzed the seasonal variation of ILI-related healthcare visits and hospital admissions for children aged 2 to 17 years, and the resultant parental absence fromwork, for the period 2005 to 2012. The study population comprised an open cohort of about 78,000 children per year from a defined region. ILI was defined as ICD-10 codes: J00-J06; J09-J15, J20; H65-H67. Results: Overall, the odds of visiting a primary care center for an ILI was 1.64-times higher during the peak influenza season, compared to the preinfluenza season. The corresponding OR among children aged 2 to 4 years was 1.96. On average, an estimated 20% of all healthcare visits for children aged 2 to 17 years, and 10% of the total healthcare costs, were attributable to seasonal ILI. In primary care, the costs per week and 10,000 person years for ILI varied - by season - from (sic)3500 to (sic)7400. The total ILI cost per year, including all physical healthcare forms, was (sic)400,400 per 10,000 children aged 2 to 17 years. The costs for prescribed and purchased drugs related to ILI symptoms constituted 52% of all medicine costs, and added 5.8% to the direct healthcare costs. The use of temporary parental employment benefits for caring of ill child followed the seasonal pattern of ILI (r = 0.91, P amp;lt; 0.001). Parental absence from work was estimated to generate indirect costs, through loss of productivity of 5.2 to 6.2 times the direct costs. Conclusions: Direct healthcare costs increased significantly during the influenza season for children aged 2 to 17 years, both in primary and hospital outpatient care, but not in hospital inpatient care. Primary care manages the majority of visits for influenza and ILI. Children 2 to 4 years have a larger portion of their total healthcare encounters related to ILI compared with older children. There is a clear correlation between ILI visits across the years and parental absence from work.
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39.
  • Sperk, Maike, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma soluble factor following two decades prolonged suppressive antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-positive males A cross-sectional study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 97:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a marked induction of several pathways that are linked to inflammation and CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Many of these processes do not fully resolve on short-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (<5 years), despite complete and durable suppression of viremia. The effects of long-term (>15 years) successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the linkage between levels of biomarkers remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the host plasma proteome in a well-defined clinical material from HIV-1-positive male patients on successful long-term ART (>15 years) and compared them with age-matched healthy controls and treatment-naive male patients with viremia in a cross-sectional manner. Plasma samples were obtained from 3 categories of age-matched HIV-1-positive male patients on long-term successfully (ART, n=10) with a median (Interquartile range, IQR) of 19 (17-20) years, treatment-naive patients with viremia (VP, n=14), and HIV-1-negative persons (HC, n=11). Plasma proteome was analyzed using the proximity extension assay targeting 92 factors. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism v7, R-packages, and Qlucore Omics Explorer v3.2. Functional enrichment analysis was performed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and interactions of specific molecules were identified using Path Designer integrated into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Group wise comparison identified 53 soluble factors, which differed between the groups (P < .05). Cluster analysis identified 13 discrete soluble factors (CD8A, CRTAM, CXCL13, EGF, CD5, CD40, CXCL9, Gal-1, IL12RB1, KLRD1, PD-1, CASP-8 and TNFRSF9) between the studied groups (adjusted P < .001). The long-term successfully ART-treated individuals clustered and networked with the HC while VPs clustered separately. All of the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were normalized back to levels of healthy controls in long-term successfully ART-treated individuals, but not the levels of KLRD1 and PGDFB. sKLRD1 that is involved in the regulation of natural killer cell (NK) mediated cytotoxicity, failed to be restored to the level of HIV-negative individuals despite successful long-term ART. Additional analysis of NK cells along with T-cell subsets can provide insights into the long-term effects of ART on the immune system.
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40.
  • Stegmayr, Bernd G., et al. (författare)
  • Few Outflow Problems With a Self-locating Catheter for Peritoneal Dialysis : A Randomized Trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 94:48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We developed a technique for direct start of peritoneal dialysis. Using a coiled or straight Tenckhoff catheter often results in obstruction of flow. A self-locating Wolfram catheter is on the market. It is not clarified if this results in a benefit.The primary aim of this study was to perform a randomized investigation to clarify if the use of a self-locating peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter would result in different flow problems than a straight Tenckhoff catheter.A total of 61 insertions were made who were randomized and received either a straight Tenckhoff (n = 32) or a self-locating Wolfram catheter (n = 29). A previously described operation technique allowed immediate postoperative start of dialysis. Seven straight Tenckhoff catheters had to be changed into self-locating catheters, and none vice versa, due to flow problems (P = 0.011). An early leakage resulted in temporarily postponed PD in 4 patients. This study showed that using the present operation technique the self-locating PD-catheter causes fewer obstruction episodes than a straight Tenckhoff catheter. This facilitates immediate postoperative start of PD.
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