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51.
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52.
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53.
  • Aplin, Lucy M., et al. (författare)
  • Experimentally induced innovations lead to persistent culture via conformity in wild birds
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7540, s. 538-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In human societies, cultural norms arise when behaviours are transmitted through social networks via high-fidelity social learning'. However, a paucity of experimental studies has meant that there is no comparable understanding of the process by which socially transmitted behaviours might spread and persist in animal populations'''. Here we show experimental evidence of the establishment of foraging traditions in a wild bird population. We introduced alternative novel foraging techniques into replicated wild sub-populations of great tits (Parus major) and used automated tracking to map the diffusion, establishment and long-term persistence of the seeded innovations. Furthermore, we used social network analysis to examine the social factors that influenced diffusion dynamics. From only two trained birds in each sub-population, the information spread rapidly through social network ties, to reach an average of 75% of individuals, with a total of 414 knowledgeable individuals performing 57,909 solutions over all replicates. The sub-populations were heavily biased towards using the technique that was originally introduced, resulting in established local traditions that were stable over two generations, despite a high population turnover. Finally, we demonstrate a strong effect of social conformity, with individuals disproportionately adopting the most frequent local variant when first acquiring an innovation, and continuing to favour social information over personal information. Cultural conformity is thought to be a key factor in the evolution of complex culture in humans''. In providing the first experimental demonstration of conformity in a wild non-primate, and of cultural norms in foraging techniques in any wild animal, our results suggest a much broader taxonomic occurrence of such an apparently complex cultural behaviour.
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54.
  • Aprile, E., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of two-neutrino double electron capture in Xe-124 with XENON1T
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 568:7753, s. 532-535
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two-neutrino double electron capture (2 nu ECEC) is a second-order weak-interaction process with a predicted half-life that surpasses the age of the Universe by many orders of magnitude(1). Until now, indications of 2 nu ECEC decays have only been seen for two isotopes(2-5), Kr-78 and Ba-130, and instruments with very low background levels are needed to detect them directly with high statistical significance(6,7). The 2 nu ECEC half-life is an important observable for nuclear structure models(8-14) and its measurement represents a meaningful step in the search for neutrinoless double electron capture-the detection of which would establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino and would give access to the absolute neutrino mass(15-17). Here we report the direct observation of 2 nu ECEC in Xe-124 with the XENON1T dark-matter detector. The significance of the signal is 4.4 standard deviations and the corresponding half-life of 1.8 x 10(22) years (statistical uncertainty, 0.5 x 10(22) years; systematic uncertainty, 0.1 x 10(22) years) is the longest measured directly so far. This study demonstrates that the low background and large target mass of xenon-based dark-matter detectors make them well suited for measuring rare processes and highlights the broad physics reach of larger next-generation experiments(18-20).
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55.
  • Arcavi, Iair, et al. (författare)
  • Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7679, s. 210-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.
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56.
  • Armstrong, Joel, et al. (författare)
  • Progressive Cactus is a multiple-genome aligner for the thousand-genome era
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 587:7833, s. 246-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New genome assemblies have been arriving at a rapidly increasing pace, thanks to decreases in sequencing costs and improvements in third-generation sequencing technologies(1-3). For example, the number of vertebrate genome assemblies currently in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database(4) increased by more than 50% to 1,485 assemblies in the year from July 2018 to July 2019. In addition to this influx of assemblies from different species, new human de novo assemblies(5) are being produced, which enable the analysis of not only small polymorphisms, but also complex, large-scale structural differences between human individuals and haplotypes. This coming era and its unprecedented amount of data offer the opportunity to uncover many insights into genome evolution but also present challenges in how to adapt current analysis methods to meet the increased scale. Cactus(6), a reference-free multiple genome alignment program, has been shown to be highly accurate, but the existing implementation scales poorly with increasing numbers of genomes, and struggles in regions of highly duplicated sequences. Here we describe progressive extensions to Cactus to create Progressive Cactus, which enables the reference-free alignment of tens to thousands of large vertebrate genomes while maintaining high alignment quality. We describe results from an alignment of more than 600 amniote genomes, which is to our knowledge the largest multiple vertebrate genome alignment created so far. The Progressive Cactus program can create reference-free alignments of hundreds of large vertebrate genomes efficiently, and is used for the alignment of more than 600 amniote genomes.
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57.
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58.
  • Arnegard, Matthew E., et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of ecological divergence during speciation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 511:7509, s. 307-311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological differences often evolve early in speciation as divergent natural selection drives adaptation to distinct ecological niches, leading ultimately to reproductive isolation. Although this process is a major generator of biodiversity, its genetic basis is still poorly understood. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of niche differentiation in a sympatric species pair of threespine stickleback fish by mapping the environment-dependent effects of phenotypic traits on hybrid feeding and performance under semi-natural conditions. We show that multiple, unlinked loci act largely additively to determine position along the major niche axis separating these recently diverged species. We also find that functional mismatch between phenotypic traits reduces the growth of some stickleback hybrids beyond that expected from an intermediate phenotype, suggesting a role for epistasis between the underlying genes. This functional mismatch might lead to hybrid incompatibilities that are analogous to those underlying intrinsic reproductive isolation but depend on the ecological context.
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59.
  • Arner, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of human adipose lipid turnover in health and metabolic disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 478:7367, s. 110-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adipose tissue mass is determined by the storage and removal of triglycerides in adipocytes(1). Little is known, however, about adipose lipid turnover in humans in health and pathology. To study this in vivo, here we determined lipid age by measuring (14)C derived from above ground nuclear bomb tests in adipocyte lipids. We report that during the average ten-year lifespan of human adipocytes, triglycerides are renewed six times. Lipid age is independent of adipocyte size, is very stable across a wide range of adult ages and does not differ between genders. Adipocyte lipid turnover, however, is strongly related to conditions with disturbed lipid metabolism. In obesity, triglyceride removal rate (lipolysis followed by oxidation) is decreased and the amount of triglycerides stored each year is increased. In contrast, both lipid removal and storage rates are decreased in non-obese patients diagnosed with the most common hereditary form of dyslipidaemia, familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Lipid removal rate is positively correlated with the capacity of adipocytes to break down triglycerides, as assessed through lipolysis, and is inversely related to insulin resistance. Our data support a mechanism in which adipocyte lipid storage and removal have different roles in health and pathology. High storage but low triglyceride removal promotes fat tissue accumulation and obesity. Reduction of both triglyceride storage and removal decreases lipid shunting through adipose tissue and thus promotes dyslipidaemia. We identify adipocyte lipid turnover as a novel target for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease.
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60.
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