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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (1990-1999)

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41.
  • Parmesan, Camille, et al. (författare)
  • Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regionalwarming
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 399:6736, s. 579-583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Mean global temperatures have risen this century, and further warming is predicted to continue for the next 50–100 years. Some migratory species can respond rapidly to yearly climate variation by altering the timing or destination of migration, but most wildlife is sedentary and so is incapable of such a rapid response. For these species, responses to the warming trend should be slower, reflected in poleward shifts of the range. Such changes in distribution would occur at the level of the population, stemming not from changes in the pattern of individuals' movements, but from changes in the ratios of extinctions to colonizations at the northern and southern boundaries of the range. A northward range shift therefore occurs when there is net extinction at the southern boundary or net colonization at the northern boundary. However, previous evidence has been limited to a single species or to only a portion of the species' range. Here we provide the first large-scale evidence of poleward shifts in entire species' ranges. In a sample of 35 non-migratory European butterflies, 63% have ranges that have shifted to the north by 35–240 km during this century, and only 3% have shifted to the south.</p>
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42.
  • Thor, Stefan, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • A LIM-homeodomain combinatorial code for motor-neuron pathway selection.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 397:6714, s. 76-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Different classes of vertebrate motor neuron that innervate distinct muscle targets express unique combinations of LIM-homeodomain transcription factors, suggesting that a combinatorial code of LIM-homeodomain proteins may underlie the control of motor-neuron pathway selection. Studies of LIM-homeodomain genes in mouse, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed functions of these genes in neuronal survival, axon guidance, neurotransmitter expression and neuronal function, but, to our knowledge, none of these studies have addressed the issue of a functional code. Here we study two members of this gene family in Drosophila, namely lim3, the homologue of the vertebrate Lhx3 and Lhx4 genes, and islet, the homologue of the vertebrate Isl1 and Is12 genes. We show that Drosophila lim3 is expressed by a specific subset of islet-expressing motor neurons and that mutating or misexpressing lim3 switches motor-neuron projections predictably. Our results provide evidence that lim3 and islet constitute a combinatorial code that generates distinct motor-neuron identities.</p>
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43.
  • Traas, J., et al. (författare)
  • Normal Differentiation Pattern in Plants Lacking Microtubular Preprophase Bands
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 375:6533, s. 676-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IT is generally accepted that polarized cell expansion and the strict control of division plane alignment are prerequisites for ordered spatial development in higher plants(1). This appears to be linked to the presence of cell walls, which immobilize the cells and fix their relative positions. In this context, the cortical cytoskeleton is thought to play a central role(1-6). Interphase microtubules are often aligned perpendicular to the growth axis and it has been proposed that they control cell expansion, probably in combination with the cell wall. Another cytoskeletal array, the prephophase band, has been associated with division plane alignment. This structure, which girdles the cell at the G2 phase of the cell cycle and at prophase, precisely predicts the future division site and probably fixes it. Here we describe different mutants in Arabidopsis that are unable to form these two cortical microtubular arrays. As expected, this defect is associated with irregular cell expansion and the inability to align division planes. Surprisingly, however, the mutations do not affect differentiation patterns: all cell types and organs are in their correct relative positions.</p>
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44.
  • Turner, Anthony P. F. (författare)
  • Biosensors : Switching channels makes sense
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 387:6633, s. 555-557
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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45.
  • Wagner, Wolfgang Rainer, et al. (författare)
  • Europe ambivalent on biotechnology
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Nature. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 387:6636, s. 845-847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Eurobarometer on Biotechnology (46.1) was conducted during October and November 1996. The survey conducted in each EU (European Union) country used a multi-stage random sampling procedure and provided a statistically representative sample of national residents aged 15 and over. The total sample within the EU was 16,246 respondents (about 1,000 per EU country). The survey questionnaire was designed by the authors as part of a larger study involving the comparative analysis of public perceptions, media coverage and public policy in relation to biotechnology from 1973 to the present.</p>
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46.
  • Wittung, Pernilla, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • DNA-LIKE DOUBLE HELIX FORMED BY PEPTIDE NUCLEIC-ACID
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 368:6471, s. 561-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALTHOUGH the importance of the nucleobases in the DNA double helix is well understood, the evolutionary significance of the deoxyribose phosphate backbone and the contribution of this chemical entity to the overall helical structure and stability of the double helix is not so clear. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)1-7 is a DNA analogue with a backbone consisting of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units (Fig. 1) which has been shown to mimic DNA in forming Watson-Crick complementary duplexes with normal DNA7. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy we show here that two complementary PNA strands can hybridize to one another to form a helical duplex. There is a seeding of preferred chirality which is induced by the presence of an L- (or D-) lysine residue attached at the carboxy terminus of the PNA strand. These results indicate that a (deoxy)ribose phosphate backbone is not an essential requirement for the formation of double helical DNA-like structures in solution.
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47.
  • Zopf, David, et al. (författare)
  • Weak-affinity Chromatography
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 346, s. 87-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Weak-affinity chromatography is a new method using readily reversible biospecific recognition as the basis for chromatographic separations. </p>
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48.
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49.
  • Björn, Lars Olof (författare)
  • Origins of photosynthesis
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 376:6535, s. 25-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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50.
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