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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2017)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 59
  • Föregående 12[3]456Nästa
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21.
  • Nesbitt, Sterling J., et al. (författare)
  • The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 544:7651, s. 484-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The relationship between dinosaurs and other reptiles is well established(1-4), but the sequence of acquisition of dinosaurian features has been obscured by the scarcity of fossils with transitional morphologies. The closest extinct relatives of dinosaurs either have highly derived morphologies(5-7) or are known from poorly preserved(8,9) or incomplete material(10,11). Here we describe one of the stratigraphically lowest and phylogenetically earliest members of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), Teleocrater rhadinus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Triassic epoch. The anatomy of T. rhadinus provides key information that unites several enigmatic taxa from across Pangaea into a previously unrecognized clade, Aphanosauria. This clade is the sister taxon of Ornithodira (pterosaurs and birds) and shortens the ghost lineage inferred at the base of Avemetatarsalia. We demonstrate that several anatomical features long thought to characterize Dinosauria and dinosauriforms evolved much earlier, soon after the bird-crocodylian split, and that the earliest avemetatarsalians retained the crocodylian-like ankle morphology and hindlimb proportions of stem archosaurs and early pseudosuchians. Early avemetatarsalians were substantially more species-rich, widely geographically distributed and morphologically diverse than previously recognized. Moreover, several early dinosauromorphs that were previously used as models to understand dinosaur origins may represent specialized forms rather than the ancestral avemetatarsalian morphology.</p>
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22.
  • Nielsen, Rasmus, et al. (författare)
  • Tracing the peopling of the world through genomics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 541:7637, s. 302-310
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Advances in the sequencing and the analysis of the genomes of both modern and ancient peoples have facilitated a number of breakthroughs in our understanding of human evolutionary history. These include the discovery of interbreeding between anatomically modern humans and extinct hominins; the development of an increasingly detailed description of the complex dispersal of modern humans out of Africa and their population expansion worldwide; and the characterization of many of the genetic adaptions of humans to local environmental conditions. Our interpretation of the evolutionary history and adaptation of humans is being transformed by analyses of these new genomic data.</p>
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23.
  • Olmeda, David, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-body imaging of lymphovascular niches identifies pre-metastatic roles of midkine
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 546:7660, s. 676-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cutaneous melanoma is a type of cancer with an inherent potential for lymph node colonization, which is generally preceded by neolymphangiogenesis(1-3). However, sentinel lymph node removal does not necessarily extend the overall survival of patients with melanoma(4,5). Moreover, lymphatic vessels collapse and become dysfunctional as melanomas progress(6,7). Therefore, it is unclear whether (and how) lymphangiogenesis contributes to visceral metastasis. Soluble and vesicle-associated proteins secreted by tumours and/or their stroma have been proposed to condition pre-metastatic sites in patients with melanoma(8-14). Still, the identities and prognostic value of lymphangiogenic mediators remain unclear(2,14). Moreover, our understanding of lymphangiogenesis (in melanomas and other tumour types) is limited by the paucity of mouse models for live imaging of distal pre-metastatic niches(15). Injectable lymphatic tracers have been developed(7), but their limited diffusion precludes whole-body imaging at visceral sites(16). Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) is an attractive 'lymphoreporter' 17 because its expression is strongly downregulated in normal adult lymphatic endothelial cells, but is activated in pathological situations such as inflammation and cancer(17,18). Here, we exploit this inducibility of VEGFR3 to engineer mouse melanoma models for whole-body imaging of metastasis generated by human cells, clinical biopsies or endogenously deregulated oncogenic pathways. This strategy revealed early induction of distal pre-metastatic niches uncoupled from lymphangiogenesis at primary lesions. Analyses of the melanoma secretome and validation in clinical specimens showed that the heparin-binding factor midkine is a systemic inducer of neo-lymphangiogenesis that defines patient prognosis. This role of midkine was linked to a paracrine activation of the mTOR pathway in lymphatic endothelial cells. These data support the use of VEGFR3 reporter mice as a 'MetAlert' discovery platform for drivers and inhibitors of metastasis.</p>
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24.
  • Pangala, Sunitha R., et al. (författare)
  • Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 552:7684, s. 230-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4)(1), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain(2,3), the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling(4,5), pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests(6) and tropical peat swamp forests(7), representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (delta C-13) of -66.2 +/- 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 +/- 1.8 to 21.2 +/- 2.5 teragrams of CH4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 +/- 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a topdown regional estimate of CH4 emissions of 42.7 +/- 5.6 teragrams of CH4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our top-down and combined bottom-up estimates, indicating that large CH4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.</p>
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25.
  • Pardo, Jason D., et al. (författare)
  • Hidden morphological diversity among early tetrapods
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 546:7660, s. 642-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Phylogenetic analysis of early tetrapod evolution has resulted in a consensus across diverse data sets(1-3) in which the tetrapod stem group is a relatively homogenous collection of medium-to large-sized animals showing a progressive loss of 'fish' characters as they become increasingly terrestrial(4,5), whereas the crown group demonstrates marked morphological diversity and disparity(6). The oldest fossil attributed to the tetrapod crown group is the highly specialized astopod Lethiscus stocki(7,8), which shows a small size, extreme axial elongation, loss of limbs, spool-shaped vertebral centra, and a skull with reduced centres of ossification, in common with an otherwise disparate group of small animals known as lepospondyls. Here we use micro-computed tomography of the only known specimen of Lethiscus to provide new information that strongly challenges this consensus. Digital dissection reveals extremely primitive cranial morphology, including a spiracular notch, a large remnant of the notochord within the braincase, an open ventral cranial fissure, an anteriorly restricted parasphenoid element, and Meckelian ossifications. The braincase is elongate and lies atop a dorsally projecting septum of the parasphenoid bone, similar to stem tetrapods such as embolomeres. This morphology is consistent in a second astopod, Coloraderpeton, although the details differ. Phylogenetic analysis, including critical new braincase data, places astopods deep on the tetrapod stem, whereas another major lepospondyl lineage is displaced into the amniotes. These results show that stem group tetrapods were much more diverse in their body plans than previously thought. Our study requires a change in commonly used calibration dates for molecular analyses, and emphasizes the importance of character sampling for early tetrapod evolutionary relationships.</p>
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26.
  • Reuveni, Shlomi, et al. (författare)
  • Ribosomes are optimized for autocatalytic production
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 547:7663, s. 293-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Many fine-scale features of ribosomes have been explained in terms of function, revealing a molecular machine that is optimized for error-correction, speed and control. Here we demonstrate mathematically that many less well understood, larger-scale features of ribosomes-such as why a few ribosomal RNA molecules dominate the mass and why the ribosomal protein content is divided into 55-80 small, similarly sized segments-speed up their autocatalytic production.</p>
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27.
  • Rosswog, Stephan (författare)
  • A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 85-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO(1) and Virgo(2) detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system(3). Less than two seconds after the merger, a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source(4-6). This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities(7), resulting in the identification(8-13) of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren'(14-18) (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder'(19): the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements(20,21), while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.</p>
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28.
  • Smartt, S. J., et al. (författare)
  • A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 75-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers(1) and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova(2-5). The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate(6). Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short.-ray burst(7,8). The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 +/- 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 +/- 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 +/- 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.</p>
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29.
  • Staring, Jacqueline, et al. (författare)
  • PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 541:7637, s. 412-416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Picornaviruses are a leading cause of human and veterinary infections that result in various diseases, including polio and the common cold. As archetypical non-enveloped viruses, their biology has been extensively studied. Although a range of different cell-surface receptors are bound by different picornaviruses, it is unclear whether common host factors are needed for them to reach the cytoplasm. Using genome-wide haploid genetic screens, here we identify the lipid-modifying enzyme PLA2G16 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) as a picornavirus host factor that is required for a previously unknown event in the viral life cycle. We find that PLA2G16 functions early during infection, enabling virion-mediated genome delivery into the cytoplasm, but not in any virion-assigned step, such as cell binding, endosomal trafficking or pore formation. To resolve this paradox, we screened for suppressors of the ΔPLA2G16 phenotype and identified a mechanism previously implicated in the clearance of intracellular bacteria. The sensor of this mechanism, galectin-8 (encoded by LGALS8), detects permeated endosomes and marks them for autophagic degradation, whereas PLA2G16 facilitates viral genome translocation and prevents clearance. This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release.</p>
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30.
  • Thompson, Luke R., et al. (författare)
  • A communal catalogue reveals Earth's multiscale microbial diversity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7681, s. 457-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Our growing awareness of the microbial world's importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth's microbial diversity.
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