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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2017)

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  • Föregående 123[4]56Nästa
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31.
  • Thompson, Luke R., et al. (författare)
  • A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Springer Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551, s. 457-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Our growing awareness of the microbial world's importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth's microbial diversity.</p>
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32.
33.
  • Wahl, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide association study of body mass index, and the adverse outcomes of adiposity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 541:7635, s. 81-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide are overweight or affected by obesity, and are at risk of developing type (2) diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic and inflammatory disturbances(1,2). Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to associated clinical conditions are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation(3-6), a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype(7). Here we use epigenome-wide association to show that body mass index (BMI; a key measure of adiposity) is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation (187 genetic loci with P &lt; 1 x 10(-7), range P = 9.2 x 10(-8) to 6.0 x 10(-46); n = 10,261 samples). Genetic association analyses demonstrate that the alterations in DNA methylation are predominantly the consequence of adiposity, rather than the cause. We find that methylation loci are enriched for functional genomic features in multiple tissues (P &lt; 0.05), and show that sentinel methylation markers identify gene expression signatures at 38 loci (P &lt; 9.0 x 10(-6), range P = 5.5 x 10(-6) to 6.1 x 10(-35), n = 1,785 samples). The methylation loci identify genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, substrate transport and inflammatory pathways. Finally, we show that the disturbances in DNA methylation predict future development of type 2 diabetes (relative risk per 1 standard deviation increase in methylation risk score: 2.3 (2.07-2.56); P = 1.1 x 10(-54)). Our results provide new insights into the biologic pathways influenced by adiposity, and may enable development of new strategies for prediction and prevention of type 2 diabetes and other adverse clinical consequences of obesity.</p>
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34.
  • Wardle, David (författare)
  • Linking the influence and dependence of people on biodiversity across scales
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 546, s. 65-72
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biodiversity enhances many of nature's benefits to people, including the regulation of climate and the production of wood in forests, livestock forage in grasslands and fish in aquatic ecosystems. Yet people are now driving the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history. Human dependence and influence on biodiversity have mainly been studied separately and at contrasting scales of space and time, but new multiscale knowledge is beginning to link these relationships. Biodiversity loss substantially diminishes several ecosystem services by altering ecosystem functioning and stability, especially at the large temporal and spatial scales that are most relevant for policy and conservation.
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35.
  • Wise, Matthew G., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence of marine ice-cliff instability in Pine Island Bay from iceberg-keel plough marks
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 550:7677, s. 506-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Marine ice-cliff instability (MICI) processes could accelerate future retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet if ice shelves that buttress grounding lines more than 800 metres below sea level are lost(1,2). The present-day grounding zones of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica need to retreat only short distances before they reach extensive retrograde slopes(3,4). When grounding zones of glaciers retreat onto such slopes, theoretical considerations and modelling results indicate that the retreat becomes unstable (marine ice-sheet instability) and thus accelerates(5). It is thought(1,2) that MICI is triggered when this retreat produces ice cliffs above the water line with heights approaching about 90 metres. However, observational evidence confirming the action of MICI has not previously been reported. Here we present observational evidence that rapid deglacial ice-sheet retreat into Pine Island Bay proceeded in a similar manner to that simulated in a recent modelling study(1), driven by MICI. Iceberg-keel plough marks on the sea-floor provide geological evidence of past and present iceberg morphology, keel depth(6) and drift direction(7). From the planform shape and cross-sectional morphologies of iceberg-keel plough marks, we find that iceberg calving during the most recent deglaciation was not characterized by small numbers of large, tabular icebergs as is observed today(8,9), which would produce wide, flat-based plough marks(10) or toothcomb-like multi-keeled plough marks(11,12). Instead, it was characterized by large numbers of smaller icebergs with V-shaped keels. Geological evidence of the form and water-depth distribution of the plough marks indicates calving-margin thicknesses equivalent to the threshold that is predicted to trigger ice-cliff structural collapse as a result of MICI13. We infer rapid and sustained ice-sheet retreat driven by MICI, commencing around 12,300 years ago and terminating before about 11,200 years ago, which produced large numbers of icebergs smaller than the typical tabular icebergs produced today. Our findings demonstrate the effective operation of MICI in the past, and highlight its potential contribution to accelerated future retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.</p>
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36.
  • Chábera, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • A low-spin Fe(iii) complex with 100-ps ligand-to-metal charge transfer photoluminescence
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 543:7647, s. 695-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transition-metal complexes are used as photosensitizers1, in light-emitting diodes, for biosensing and in photocatalysis2. A key feature in these applications is excitation from the ground state to a charge-transfer state3,4; the long charge-transfer-state lifetimes typical for complexes of ruthenium5 and other precious metals are often essential to ensure high performance. There is much interest in replacing these scarce elements with Earth-abundant metals, with iron6 and copper7 being particularly attractive owing to their low cost and non-toxicity. But despite the exploration of innovative molecular designs6,8,9,10, it remains a formidable scientific challenge11 to access Earth-abundant transition-metal complexes with long-lived charge-transfer excited states. No known iron complexes are considered12 photoluminescent at room temperature, and their rapid excited-state deactivation precludes their use as photosensitizers13,14,15. Here we present the iron complex [Fe(btz)3]3+ (where btz is 3,3′-dimethyl-1,1′-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4′-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene)), and show that the superior σ-donor and π-acceptor electron properties of the ligand stabilize the excited state sufficiently to realize a long charge-transfer lifetime of 100 picoseconds (ps) and room-temperature photoluminescence. This species is a low-spin Fe(iii) d5 complex, and emission occurs from a long-lived doublet ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (2LMCT) state that is rarely seen for transition-metal complexes4,16,17. The absence of intersystem crossing, which often gives rise to large excited-state energy losses in transition-metal complexes, enables the observation of spin-allowed emission directly to the ground state and could be exploited as an increased driving force in photochemical reactions on surfaces. These findings suggest that appropriate design strategies can deliver new iron-based materials for use as light emitters and photosensitizers.
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37.
  • Elsasser, SJ, et al. (författare)
  • Elsässer et al. reply
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 548:7665, s. E7-E12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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38.
  • Ernberg, I, et al. (författare)
  • George Klein (1925-2016)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 542:7641, s. 296-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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