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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019) > (2017)

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  • Föregående 12345[6]
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51.
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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53.
  • Raffel, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • BCAT1 restricts αKG levels in AML stem cells leading to IDHmut-like DNA hypermethylation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 551:7680, s. 384-388
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathway and high levels of BCAA transaminase 1 (BCAT1) have recently been associated with aggressiveness in several cancer entities. However, the mechanistic role of BCAT1 in this process remains largely uncertain. Here, by performing high-resolution proteomic analysis of human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) stem-cell and non-stem-cell populations, we find the BCAA pathway enriched and BCAT1 protein and transcripts overexpressed in leukaemia stem cells. We show that BCAT1, which transfers α-amino groups from BCAAs to α-ketoglutarate (αKG), is a critical regulator of intracellular αKG homeostasis. Further to its role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, αKG is an essential cofactor for αKG-dependent dioxygenases such as Egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 1 (EGLN1) and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of DNA demethylases. Knockdown of BCAT1 in leukaemia cells caused accumulation of αKG, leading to EGLN1-mediated HIF1α protein degradation. This resulted in a growth and survival defect and abrogated leukaemia-initiating potential. By contrast, overexpression of BCAT1 in leukaemia cells decreased intracellular αKG levels and caused DNA hypermethylation through altered TET activity. AML with high levels of BCAT1 (BCAT1high) displayed a DNA hypermethylation phenotype similar to cases carrying a mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHmut), in which TET2 is inhibited by the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. High levels of BCAT1 strongly correlate with shorter overall survival in IDHWTTET2WT, but not IDHmut or TET2mut AML. Gene sets characteristic for IDHmut AML were enriched in samples from patients with an IDHWTTET2WTBCAT1high status. BCAT1high AML showed robust enrichment for leukaemia stem-cell signatures, and paired sample analysis showed a significant increase in BCAT1 levels upon disease relapse. In summary, by limiting intracellular αKG, BCAT1 links BCAA catabolism to HIF1α stability and regulation of the epigenomic landscape, mimicking the effects of IDH mutations. Our results suggest the BCAA-BCAT1-αKG pathway as a therapeutic target to compromise leukaemia stem-cell function in patients with IDHWTTET2WT AML.
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55.
  • Schoebel, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Cryo-EM structure of the protein-conducting ERAD channel Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 548:7667, s. 352-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Misfolded endoplasmic reticulum proteins are retro-translocated through the membrane into the cytosol, where they are poly-ubiquitinated, extracted from the membrane, and degraded by the proteasome(1-4)-a pathway termed endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Proteins with misfolded domains in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen or membrane are discarded through the ERAD-L and ERAD-M pathways, respectively. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both pathways require the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, a multi-spanning membrane protein with a cytosolic RING finger domain(5,6). Hrd1 is the crucial membrane component for retro-translocation(7,8), but it is unclear whether it forms a protein-conducting channel. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy structure of S. cerevisiae Hrd1 in complex with its endoplasmic reticulum luminal binding partner, Hrd3. Hrd1 forms a dimer within the membrane with one or two Hrd3 molecules associated at its luminal side. Each Hrd1 molecule has eight transmembrane segments, five of which form an aqueous cavity extending from the cytosol almost to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, while a segment of the neighbouring Hrd1 molecule forms a lateral seal. The aqueous cavity and lateral gate are reminiscent of features of protein-conducting conduits that facilitate polypeptide movement in the opposite direction-from the cytosol into or across membranes(9-11). Our results suggest that Hrd1 forms a retro-translocation channel for the movement of misfolded polypeptides through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.
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  • Föregående 12345[6]
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