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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019)

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11.
  • Amole, C., et al. (författare)
  • Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 483:7390, s. 439-U86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured(1) and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and-by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen-the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state(2,3) of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped(4-6) in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.
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12.
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13.
  • Andersson, Claes, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Group size and cultural complexity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 511:7507, s. E1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A decade ago, Henrich1 proposed group size as a driver of cultural complexity. Derex et al now present experimental results they say support this ‘group size hypothesis’ by seemingly showing that larger groups perform better than smaller groups under imitation-based cultural evolution. Our reanalysis of their experimental data, however, shows that larger groups actually perform worse than smaller groups. Thus, contrary to their claim, their data are consistent with empirical evidence discounting the group size hypothesis for non-food producing societies.
14.
  • Andersson, Inger (författare)
  • Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 470, s. 73-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded(1-3). It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction 'snapshots' are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source(4). We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes(5). More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals (similar to 200 nm to 2 mm in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes(6). This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.
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15.
  • Andersson, Inger (författare)
  • Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 470, s. 78-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-ray lasers offer new capabilities in understanding the structure of biological systems, complex materials and matter under extreme conditions(1-4). Very short and extremely bright, coherent X-ray pulses can be used to outrun key damage processes and obtain a single diffraction pattern from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into plasma(1). The continuous diffraction pattern of non-crystalline objects permits oversampling and direct phase retrieval(2). Here we show that high-quality diffraction data can be obtained with a single X-ray pulse from a noncrystalline biological sample, a single mimivirus particle, which was injected into the pulsed beam of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source(5). Calculations indicate that the energy deposited into the virus by the pulse heated the particle to over 100,000 K after the pulse had left the sample. The reconstructed exit wavefront (image) yielded 32-nm full-period resolution in a single exposure and showed no measurable damage. The reconstruction indicates inhomogeneous arrangement of dense material inside the virion. We expect that significantly higher resolutions will be achieved in such experiments with shorter and brighter photon pulses focused to a smaller area. The resolution in such experiments can be further extended for samples available in multiple identical copies.
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16.
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17.
  • Andersson, Lisa S., et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in DMRT3 affect locomotion in horses and spinal circuit function in mice
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 488:7413, s. 642-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Locomotion in mammals relies on a central pattern-generating circuitry of spinal interneurons established during development that coordinates limb movement(1). These networks produce left-right alternation of limbs as well as coordinated activation of flexor and extensor muscles(2). Here we show that a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene has a major effect on the pattern of locomotion in horses. The mutation is permissive for the ability to perform alternate gaits and has a favourable effect on harness racing performance. Examination of wild-type and Dmrt3-null mice demonstrates that Dmrt3 is expressed in the dI6 subdivision of spinal cord neurons, takes part in neuronal specification within this subdivision, and is critical for the normal development of a coordinated locomotor network controlling limb movements. Our discovery positions Dmrt3 in a pivotal role for configuring the spinal circuits controlling stride in vertebrates. The DMRT3 mutation has had a major effect on the diversification of the domestic horse, as the altered gait characteristics of a number of breeds apparently require this mutation.
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18.
  • Andresen, G. B., et al. (författare)
  • Trapped antihydrogen
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 468:7324, s. 673-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antimatter was first predicted1 in 1931, by Dirac. Work with high-energy antiparticles is now commonplace, and anti-electrons are used regularly in the medical technique of positron emission tomography scanning. Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, has been produced2, 3 at low energies at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) since 2002. Antihydrogen is of interest for use in a precision test of nature’s fundamental symmetries. The charge conjugation/parity/time reversal (CPT) theorem, a crucial part of the foundation of the standard model of elementary particles and interactions, demands that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Given the current experimental precision of measurements on the hydrogen atom (about two parts in 1014 for the frequency of the 1s-to-2s transition4), subjecting antihydrogen to rigorous spectroscopic examination would constitute a compelling, model-independent test of CPT. Antihydrogen could also be used to study the gravitational behaviour of antimatter5. However, so far experiments have produced antihydrogen that is not confined, precluding detailed study of its structure. Here we demonstrate trapping of antihydrogen atoms. From the interaction of about 107 antiprotons and 7 × 108 positrons, we observed 38 annihilation events consistent with the controlled release of trapped antihydrogen from our magnetic trap; the measured background is 1.4 ± 1.4 events. This result opens the door to precision measurements on anti-atoms, which can soon be subjected to the same techniques as developed for hydrogen.
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