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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019)

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  • Besnier, Francois, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464, s. 587-U145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Domestic animals are excellent models for genetic studies of phenotypic evolution(1-3). They have evolved genetic adaptations to a new environment, the farm, and have been subjected to strong human-driven selection leading to remarkable phenotypic changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour. Identifying the genetic changes underlying these developments provides new insight into general mechanisms by which genetic variation shapes phenotypic diversity. Here we describe the use of massively parallel sequencing to identify selective sweeps of favourable alleles and candidate mutations that have had a prominent role in the domestication of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their subsequent specialization into broiler (meat-producing) and layer (egg-producing) chickens. We have generated 44.5-fold coverage of the chicken genome using pools of genomic DNA representing eight different populations of domestic chickens as well as red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), the major wild ancestor(4). We report more than 7,000,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, almost 1,300 deletions and a number of putative selective sweeps. One of the most striking selective sweeps found in all domestic chickens occurred at the locus for thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which has a pivotal role in metabolic regulation and photoperiod control of reproduction in vertebrates. Several of the selective sweeps detected in broilers overlapped genes associated with growth, appetite and metabolic regulation. We found little evidence that selection for loss-of-function mutations had a prominent role in chicken domestication, but we detected two deletions in coding sequences that we suggest are functionally important. This study has direct application to animal breeding and enhances the importance of the domestic chicken as a model organism for biomedical research.
  • Beznosov, Pavel A., et al. (författare)
  • Morphology of the earliest reconstructable tetrapod Parmastega aelidae
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 574:7779, s. 527-531
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The known diversity of tetrapods of the Devonian period has increased markedly in recent decades, but their fossil record consists mostly of tantalizing fragments(1-15). The framework for interpreting the morphology and palaeobiology of Devonian tetrapods is dominated by the near complete fossils of Ichthyostega and Acanthostega; the less complete, but partly reconstructable, Ventastega and Tulerpeton have supporting roles(2,4,16-34). All four of these genera date to the late Famennian age (about 365-359 million years ago)-they are 10 million years younger than the earliest known tetrapod fragments(5,10), and nearly 30 million years younger than the oldest known tetrapod footprints(35). Here we describe Parmastega aelidae gen. et sp. nov., a tetrapod from Russia dated to the earliest Famennian age (about 372 million years ago), represented by three-dimensional material that enables the reconstruction of the skull and shoulder girdle. The raised orbits, lateral line canals and weakly ossified postcranial skeleton of P. aelidae suggest a largely aquatic, surface-cruising animal. In Bayesian and parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses, the majority of trees place Parmastega as a sister group to all other tetrapods.
  • Bjerkeli, Per, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Resolved images of a protostellar outflow driven by an extended disk wind.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 540:7633, s. 406-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Young stars are associated with prominent outflows of molecular gas. The ejection of gas is believed to remove angular momentum from the protostellar system, permitting young stars to grow by the accretion of material from the protostellar disk. The underlying mechanism for outflow ejection is not yet understood, but is believed to be closely linked to the protostellar disk. Various models have been proposed to explain the outflows, differing mainly in the region where acceleration of material takes place: close to the protostar itself ('X-wind', or stellar wind), in a larger region throughout the protostellar disk (disk wind), or at the interface between the two. Outflow launching regions have so far been probed only by indirect extrapolation because of observational limits. Here we report resolved images of carbon monoxide towards the outflow associated with the TMC1A protostellar system. These data show that gas is ejected from a region extending up to a radial distance of 25 astronomical units from the central protostar, and that angular momentum is removed from an extended region of the disk. This demonstrates that the outflowing gas is launched by an extended disk wind from a Keplerian disk.
  • Blicharska, Malgorzata, et al. (författare)
  • Metrics: a long-term threat to society.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 490, s. 343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Blicharska, Malgorzata, et al. (författare)
  • Think bigger for conservation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 470, s. 39-39
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Blicharska, Malgorzata, et al. (författare)
  • Use mentoring to fix science inequality
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 517, s. 271-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Bohm, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in gamma-ray bursts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 484:7394, s. 351-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 10(18) electronvolts. GRBs (c-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources(1-3). In the GRB 'fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and gamma-rays(4). Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux(5-7). Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions(4,8-10). This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10(18) electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted.
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